AP Psychology Chapter 2

AP Psychology Chapter 2

Cell Body
Life support center of the neuron.
Dendrites
Branching extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other neurons.
Axon
Long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons.
Terminal Branches of the Axon
Branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
Depolarization
occurs when positive ions enter the neuron, making it more prone to firing an action potential.
Hyperpolarization
occurs when negative ions enter the neuron, making it less prone to firing an action potential.
Threshold
when the positive ions outweigh the negative ions and the neuron fires
Refractory Period
After a neuron fires an action potential it pauses for a short period to recharge itself to fire again.
Sodium-Potassium Pump
pump positive ions out from the inside of the neuron, making them ready for another action potential.
Synapse
a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Reuptake
Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of _______. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.
Process
1. Dendrites receive a neurotransmitter
2. Neurotransmitters hyper/depolarize the cell
3. Cell reaches threshold and fires
4. Action potential travels down the axon
5. reaches terminal branches that release neurotransmitter
6. Binds to dendrites on next neuron
What are serotonin pathways involved with?
mood regulation
What are Dopamine pathways involved with?
diseases such as Parkinson’s and Schizophrenia
What are each Neurotransmitters involved with?
What are each Neurotransmitters involved with?
What are endorphin’s?
feel good chemicals
Antagonist
A substance (molecule) that acts against and blocks an action.
Agonist
A substance (molecule) that acts like another substance and therefore stimulates an action.
Nervous System
Consists of all nerve cells in the body. It is the body’s speedy electrochemical communication system.
What does the Central Nervous System (CNS) consist of?
the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
Sensory Neurons
carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS
Motor Neurons
carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands
Interneurons
connect two neurons
Glial Cells
support network for neurons
Astrocytes
provide nutrition to neurons
What do Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells do?
insulate neurons as myelin
Somatic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.
Endocrine System
the body’s “slow” chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands
Hormones
chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands that are secreted in the bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain and many other tissues of the body.
Pituitary Gland
Is called the “master gland.” The anterior pituitary lobe releases hormones that regulate other glands. The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance.
Hypothalamus
brain region controlling the pituitary gland (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
Thyroid Gland
affects metabolism (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
Parathyroids
helps regulate calcium levels (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
Adrenal Glands
produces hormones such as sex hormones and cortisal (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
Medulla
inner part of adrenal glands that help to trigger the “fight or flight” response (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
Pancrease
regulates blood sugar (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
Ovary
secretes female sex hormones (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
Testis
secretes male sex hormones (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)
Lesions
experimentally destroys brain tissue to study animal behaviors after such destruction (TECHNIQUE TO STUDY BRAIN)
Clinical Study
shed light on a number of brain disorders. Alterations in brain morphology due to neurological and psychiatric diseases are now being cataloged. (TECHNIQUE TO STUDY BRAIN)
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
PET (positron emission topography) Scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue.
Medulla (Brain)
base of the brain stem that controls heartbeat and breathing
Reticular Formation
nerve network in the brain stem that plays a large part in controlling arousal
Thalamus
brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
Cerebellum
the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance
Limbic System
is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brain stem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
Amygdala
consists of two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger
Plasticity
refers to the brain’s ability to modify itself after some type of injury or illness.
Cerebral Cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center
Where is the frontal lobe?
forehead
Where is the parietal lobe?
top to rear head
Where is the occipital lobe?
back head
Where is the temporal lobe?
sides of the head
Motor Cortex
area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements
Sensory Cortex (parietal)
receives information from the sense organs and the surface of the skin
Aphasia
loss of language skills usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area or to Wernicke’s area
Angular Gyrus
transforms visual representations into auditory code
Broca’s Area
controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
Wernicke’s area
interprets audio code
Visual Cortex
receives written words as well as visual stimulation
An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.
a. away from; toward
b. away from; away from
c. toward; away from
d. toward; toward
A
The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by flooding synapses with
a. ACh.
b. GABA.
c. dopamine.
d. adrenaline.
A
Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.
a. low; low
b. high; high
c. low; high
d. high; low
A
A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n)
a. opiate.
b. antagonist.
c. glutamate.
d. agonist.
B
The peripheral nervous system consists of
a. association areas.
b. the spinal cord.
c. the reticular formation.
d. sensory and motor neurons.
D
The autonomic nervous system most directly controls
a. speech production.
b. thinking and memory.
c. movement of the arms and legs.
d. bladder contractions.
D
Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron’s experience is most indicative of a:
A. Hemispheretomy.
B. Severed spinal cord.
C. Split brain.
D. Reward deficiency syndrome.
B
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels.
A. Raises; raises
B. Lowers; lowers
C. Raises; lowers
D. Lowers; raises
A
To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one’s own name, researchers would make use of a(n)
A. MRI.
B. PET scan.
C. EEG.
D. Brain lesion.
C
Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to:
A. Insomnia.
B. Alcoholism.
C. Schizophrenia.
D. Parkinson’s disease.
B
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
A. Occipital
B. Frontal
C. Temporal
D. Parietal
B
The visual cortex is located in the
Answer:
A. Occipital lobes.
B. Parietal lobes.
C. Temporal lobes.
D. Association areas.
A
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by
A. Plasticity.
B. Memory loss.
C. Auditory hallucinations.
D. Irritability
D
Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates
A. Hemispherectomy.
B. Tomography.
C. Neural prosthetics.
D. Plasticity
D
Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
A. Autonomic nervous system
B. Left cerebral hemisphere
C. Somatic nervous system
D. Right cerebral hemisphere
B
The vast majority of neurons in the body’s information system are
Answer
A. Stem cells.
B. Interneurons.
C. Motor neurons.
D. Sensory neurons.
B
Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called
Answer
A. ACh agonists.
B. Dendrites.
C. Morphene antagonists.
D. Endorphins.
D
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the
Answer
A. Axon terminals.
B. Synaptic gaps.
C. Glial cells.
D. Endocrine glands
B
Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n)
A. ACh antagonist.
B. Dopamine antagonist.
C. ACh agonist.
D. Dopamine agonist.
A
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.
Answer
A. Lowers; dilates
B. Raises; contracts
C. Lowers; contracts
D. Raises; dilates
D
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different
A. Neurotransmitters.
B. Reticular formations.
C. Neural networks.
D. Limbic systems.
C
The endocrine system consists of
A. Association areas.
B. Neural networks.
C. Interneurons.
D. Glands.
D
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
Answer
A. a brain lesion
B. an interneuron
C. a PET scan
D. a hemispherectomy
C
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
Answer
A. Frontal lobes
B. Limbic system
C. Brainstem
D. Corpus callosum
C
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her
A. Amygdala.
B. Hypothalamus
C. Cerebellum.
D. Corpus callosum
C
The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the:
A. Thalamus.
B. Amygdala.
C. Hippocampus.
D. Hypothalamus.
D
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?
A. Occipital lobes
B. Frontal lobe
C. Temporal lobes
D. Parietal lobes
B
The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as:
A. The amygdala.
B. Reward centers.
C. The reticular formation.
D. Association areas.
D
The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of:
A. Neural prosthetics.
B. Phrenology.
C. Plasticity.
D. ACh antagonists.
C
Speech is processed primarily in the right hemisphere by the ________ of those who are left-handed and by the ________ of those who are right-handed.
A. minority; minority
B. majority; majority
C. minority; majority
D. majority; minority
A