AP US History: American Pageant Chapter 3 Terms

Calvin
Religious Leader / Elaborated Luther’s ideas in Institutes of the Christian Religion; God is All Powerful & All Knowing
Calvinism
Theology of John Calvin & his followers emphasizing Omnipotence of God and Salvation by Grace Alone
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of Calvinism
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The Elect
according to Calvin, those who are destined for eternal bliss
Predestination
Theory introduced by Calvin stating that some are chosen for heaven and some for hell before they are born
Conversion
Receipt of God’s free gift of Saving Grace sought for by Calvinists
Henry VIII
King of England that broke his ties with the RCC and became head of the English Church
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to “purify” the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice & organization
Visible Saints
Belief that only these should be admitted to church membership, but the Church of England enrolled all the king’s subjects
James I
King of England, Head of State & Church, Threatened to Harass Separatists
Separatists
People who wanted to have a separate, or different church, from the Church of England, and left to solve this issue
Non Conformists
People who wanted to have a different church than the Church of England, but stayed to fight for their religion rather than leave like the Separatists
Pilgrims
Most famous group of Separatists who wanted to leave Holland because they feared “Dutchification” of their children; left on the Mayflower and settled on Plymouth Bay
Mayflower
the ship boarded by the Pilgrims to New England
Myles Standish
captain of the Mayflower who served later as an Indian fighter and negotiator
Mayflower Compact
simple agreement signed by 41 adult male Pilgrims to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority
Plymouth Bay
where the Pilgrims settled
Thanksgiving
the feast held by the Pilgrims to celebrate the bountiful harvest of 1621
Succotash
a dish served at the first Thanksgiving made of lima beans and corn
Bradford
Pilgrim leader; self-taught scholar; chosen governor thirty times in the annual elections
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England; he tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer; he was later executed by Parliament
Massachusetts Bay Company
formed by a group of non-separatist Puritans who feared for their faith and for England’s future; secured a royal charter
John Winthrop
first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, helped Massachusetts prosper w/ fur, fishing, and ship building
Freemen
adult males who belonged to the Puritan congregations
Franchise
right or privilege granted by authority; right to vote
Squanto
Native American kidnapped by European explorer at a young age, comes back to American and finds Jamestown settlers; helped with relations between Indians and English
Bible Commonwealth
name for the Massachusetts Bay colony that refers to its tax supported churches and visible saints
John Cotton
Puritan educated at Cambridge; went to Massachusetts to avoid persecution for his criticism of the Church of England; devoted himself to defending the government’s duty to enforce religious rules
Protestant ethic
Mid 1600s. A commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldy affairs
sumptuary laws
these regulated the dress of different classes forbidding people from wearing clothes of their social superiors, also known as Blue Laws
Anne Hutchinson
woman who claimed that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man; said she had received her ideas in a direct confrontation with God; banished from the colony
Antinomianism
idea that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man
Roger Williams
Salem minister who challenged the legality of the Bay Colony’s charter, condemned for not compensating the Indians; denied civil authority to regulate religious behavior; built a Baptist church and complete religious freedom
Baptist Church
church established by Roger Williams
Rhode Island
colony with complete religious freedom, no compulsory worship attendance, no taxes to support church
Thomas Hooker
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government
Fundamental Orders
in Connecticut; established a regime democratically controlled by the “substantial” citizens
Massasoit
chieftain of the Wampanoag Indians who signed a treaty w/ the Pilgrims
Pequot War
The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
King Philip
son of Massasoit, also called Metacom; forged an alliance between Indian tribes and mounted attacks on English villages; was captured and beheaded
King Philip’s War
a conflict between New England conlonists and Native American Groups allied under leadership Wampanoag chief Metacom
New England Confederation
consisting of the two Massachusetts and two Connecticut colonies; 1643 – Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies
Dominion of New England
Embraced all of New England, New York, and Jersey; aimed at bolstering colonial defense in the event of an Indian War; designed to promote efficiency in the administration of the English Navigation Laws
Navigation Laws
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America
Edmund Andros
head of the dominion; open affiliation w/ Church of England; ruthlessly cubed town meetings, the press, and schools; strove to enforce Navigation Laws; forced to flee
Glorious Revolution
People of old England dethroned James II and enthroned William and Mary; caused Dominion of New England collapsed
Henry Hudson
Hired by the Dutch East India co., ventured into Delaware/NY Bay; filed a Dutch claim to a wooded/watered area
Dutch West India Company
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants’ trade in the Americas and Africa
New Netherland
A colony founded by the Dutch in the New World. It became New York; quick profit fur trade
Peter Stuyvesant
governor of New Netherland; leader of Dutch military expedition against Swedish; forced to surrender
Quakers
religious group that refused to support the Church of England w/ taxes; had simple meetinghouses; believed they were all children in the sight of God; pacifists; established themselves in Pennsylvania
William Penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution
Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania; fertile soil; many rivers; fur trade and lumber industry; also known as “Bread” Colonies
Town Hall Democracy
eligible citizens who attend meetings act as the legislative body
Separation of Church and State
idea that the government and religion should be separate, and not interfere in each other’s affairs
Self Sufficient Farming
farmers that produced all of the necessary food/sustenance themselves, would go into town about once a year to buy things they could not produce such as iron tools
Planter Aristocracy
Wealthy Plantation Owners with many slaves stood at the head of society determining the political, economical, and social aspects of society; they were the face of the south
Patroonship
Vast Dutch Feudal Estates fronting the Hudson River in early 1600s. Granted to Promoters who agreed to settle 50 people on them. Made NY more Aristocratic than neighboring colonies
Doctrine of a Calling
Puritan belief that they are Responsible to do God’s Work on Earth
covenant
(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return
Protestant Reformation
Religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Great Puritan Migration
Mass flight by religious dissidents from the persecutions of Archbishop Laud and Charles I
General Court
Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600’s

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