AP US History Chapter 2

AP US History Chapter 2

Nationalism
Feelings of loyalty or duty to a country or nation.
Primogeniture
A system giving all land and inheritances to the oldest male child in the family.
Joint-stock companies
Groups of people who pool a small amount of their money together toward a common cause.
Charter
License given to a person or a group of people to carry out a certain task; including duties and privileges.
Census
A count of a region or country’s population, occasionally with extra details about the population.
Feudal
Describes a system in which land is given out by a governmental head to lords or less-powerful entities.
Indentured servant
A person who was given fare to America in return for a contract of servitude that did not have fair conditions.
Toleration
Freedom of worship given by a majority church or government to minority churches.
Squatter
A farmer who cultivates land that is not legally his.
Buffer
A person who serves as a barrier or a divide between people who cannot or should not be together.
Melting pot
A region where unlike cultures meld together to form one culture, influenced by each individual culture.
Lord De La Warr
A governor of Jamestown. Began a harsh military campaign against the Indians in that area.
Pocahontas
Powhatan’s daughter; helped to establish peace by acting as though she saved John Smith from an execution, and later married John Rolfe.
Powhatan
An Indian Chieftain who ruled a few tribes of Indians and interacted with Jamestown settlers. He originally wanted peace, but later engaged in many wars with the settlers after provocation.
Handsome Lake
An Iroquois religious leader who had a vision that the Iroquois nation had to give new birth to their high morals. He helped them to expand again.
John Rolfe
Helped to begin the Tobacco industry in Virginia, married Pocahontas to provide temporary peace, and was killed in an Indian attack.
Lord Baltimore
Founded Maryland as a sanctuary for Catholicism, tried to accomplish peace between Catholics and Protestants, but failed.
Walter Raleigh
Helped to establish the Roanoke Island colony, but when he left, the inhabitants disappeared.
James Oglethorpe
A ruler of Georgia; helped to repel an attack from Spain against Georgia. He went to great lengths to help Georgia in any way he could.
Humphrey Gilbert
Half-brother of Walter Raleigh. Was the first of the English to attempt colonization, but failed in his attempt.
Oliver Cromwell
A military leader who overthrew the crown in the English Civil War, established a temporary republican Commonwealth.
John Smith
A leader of Jamestown who saved the colony from downfall through his leadership and encouragement of work.
Slavery
The practice of kidnapping African people and bringing them to America to work.
Enclosure
Closing off/fencing off land for grazing in England, making life difficult for farmers.
House of Burgesses
The first of many small parliaments organized in America.
Royal Charter
A written grant made by the crown allowing certain privileges to certain people.
Slave Codes
Documents defining the legal relationship between a slave and their master.
Yeoman
A landowner who is allowed to vote.
Proprietor
A person who was granted a large amount of land by the King.
Longhouse
A long wooden building housing multiple families, used by the Iroquois.
Starving Time
The winter of 1609-1610, 340 of the original 400 Jamestown settlers died.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
A war between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan Indians; ended with a peace treaty along with the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Another war started by the Powhatans in an attempt to rid themselves of the Virginians.
Act of Toleration
A law passed in Maryland that gave religious freedom to all Christians but gave death to those who denied Christ.
Barbados slave code
A slave code giving almost absolute control to the slave owner, including the right to inflict severe punishment.
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company given a charter by the King to colonize the New World.
Restoration
When the monarchy was reestablished in England following the republican period after the civil war.
Savannah Indians
A group of Indians who formed an alliance with the Carolinas, but later ended that alliance in hopes of better treatment further north.
Iroquois Confederacy
An alliance of five Native American nations; fought against Europeans and other tribes, but were eventually destroyed.