AP US History Chapter 9
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Law passed by the Articles of Confederation Congress establishing a way for new states to enter the country on an equal footing with existing states. Also banned slavery from the Northwest territory (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin). The anti-slavery provisions were later stricken-out by the decision on Dred Scot v. Sanford).
Land Ordinance of 1785
Law passed by the Articles of Confederation Congress. Land in the Northwest Territory would be divided into townships and sections. Most of the land would be sold to raise revenue for the national government. 1/36 would be set aside to provide for public education. 4/36 would be reserved for the use of the national government.
(1786-1787) Rebellion of debtors and small farmers in western Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays. Exposed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and convinced many people to support a stronger national government.
(1786) Meeting of delegates from 5 states (NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA) to discuss how to resolve economic issues that were not able to be addressed by the Articles of Confederation. Led by Alexander Hamilton. Unable to resolve anything with only delegates from 5 states present, they agreed to call for a meeting with representatives from all states to convene the next summer. Precursor to the Constitutional Convention.
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Law authored by Thomas Jefferson establishing the separation of church and state in Virginia. A step toward the First Amendment. One of three accomplishments on Jefferson’s epitaph.
The Federalist Papers
A series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pen name of “Publius” to help encourage ratification of the Constitution. Widely recognized as the best definition from the Framers of the Constitution of what the Constitution means.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution. George Mason is widely recognized as the “Father of the Bill of Rights.” Bill of Rights was promised to the Anti-federalists in Virginia and New York in return for ratification of the Constitution. Protects basic rights of Americans. Ratified in 1791.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Law passed to clarify Article III of the Constitution. Organized the Supreme Court and lower federal courts, established the office of Attorney General, etc… Article XIII of the Judiciary Act was declared unconstitutional in the case of Marbury v. Madison.
Articles of Confederation
The constitution of the United States from 1781-1789. This system established a “firm league of friendship” between the thirteen states. It had a unicameral legislature but no actual executive branch or judicial branch on the national level. Replaced by the Constitution after it was ratified and when the nee government took office in 1789.
(May 25, 1787 – September 17, 1787) Meeting in Philadelphia of delegates from 12 of the 13 states (Rhode Island did not attend.) during which the U.S. Constitution was drafted. “Convention of demi-gods.”
(a.k.a. “The Connecticut Compromise”) Compromise at the Constitutional Convention engineered by Roger Sherman of Connecticut between the large states and the small states on the structure of the legislative branch. Senate – All states have two votes. House of Representatives – Representation based on the population of the state. This compromise also included the establishment of the Electoral College.
Compromise at the Constitutional Convention between the North and the South whereby it was agreed that slaves would be counted in the census but that they would only count as 3/5 of a person each.
New Jersey Plan
Plan proposed by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention. Called for a unicameral legislature with one vote per state.
“The Father of the Constitution.” Author of the Virginia Plan. Co-author of The Federalist Papers. Along with Thomas Jefferson, he helped start the Democratic-Republican Party. He served as Thomas Jefferson’s Secretary of State. He was the fourth President of the United States. Served as President during the War of 1812.
Plan proposed by James Madison at the Constitutional Convention. Called for a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses based on population. Also called for creation of an executive branch and a judicial branch on the national level. This was the first plan presented at the Constitutional Convention and much of it was adopted; therefore, James Madison is “The Father of the Constitution.”
Financial expert. One of the New York delegates to the Constitutional Convention. A staunch federalist. Co-author of The Federalist Papers. First U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. “Father of the National Debt.” Founder of the Federalist Party.