Definition: People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects. Cause: Used to derive the bulk of their daily nourishment. Effect: Following herds of animals and no SPL.
Definition: A way of life dependent on large herds of grazing livestock in Neolithic Era. Cause: The domestication of animals and their contribution to meat, milk, wool, and energy. Effect: Dominant militaries and efficient crop growth and increase in population
Definition: Domestication of plants in the Neolithic Era. Cause: Food source was unpredictable for foragers. Effect: Settled population, spread of disease, social classes, spl.
Specialization of Labor
Definition: When individuals in a society specialize in certain professions. Cause: Surpluses of food. Effect: Development in art, science, religion, class differentiation.
Definition: People from Anatolia adept in metallurgy and military based on weapons and chariots. Cause: Better ways for farming and weapon technology. Effect: Creation of metal plows, metallurgy, weapons
Definition: Polytheistic religion with reincarnation that divided social classes. Cause: Brahmin priests who held the knowledge and advocated varna system. Effect: Lowered status of women, and responses from Buddhism and Jainism.
Definition: The Hebrew’s central religion focused on a single god. Cause: Influenced by Zoroastrianism and response to polytheism. Effect: Influences on Christianity and Islam.
Definition: Originating in Ancient Iran, centered on a single deity Ahuramazda that emphasizes truth and reverence for nature and brings idea of good and evil. Cause: Persia’s need for a centralized religion to unify its borders. Effect: Influenced Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and other faiths.
Definition: An epic poem from Mesopotamia concerning Gilgamesh and similar to stories of Old Testament. Cause: Need for the explanation of how world was created and came to be. Effect: Diffusion into Judaism, Christianity, influenced Old Testament.
Code of Hammurabi
Definition: A code of laws written by Babylonian Hammurabi that illustrate the principles to be used in legal cases. Cause: States were in need of order and stability. Effect: Civilizations established order and stability.
Definition: Weapons made entirely out of iron. Cause: Changes in society, farming methods, and artistic styles influenced the iron age. Effect: Iron became a valuable source to civilizations.
Definition: A two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle used in ancient warfare and racing in Mesopotamia. Cause: Military technology changed as armies evolved from militias called up for temporary duty. Effect: Infantry found themselves at mercy of chariots carrying a driver and an archer who could easily overtake them.
Definition: Centralized administartions attempted to bring clean water supplies to urban populations and human wastes and garbage away from human populations. Causes: Large population in urban center = transmission of disease kills faster. Effects: Transmission of disease and urban death rates declined.
Definition: A work of art created by chiseling marble, modeling clay, or casting in metal. Cause: Wealth and specialization of labor. Effect: Reflects the values of religion and culture and diffuses into civilizations.
Definition: Phoenician’s set of 22 symbols to represent the consonants, leaving the vowels to be inferred. Cause: Used earlier Canaanite models to create an easy and universal written language. Effect: Adopted by the Greeks and more widespread literacy because people can learn an alphabet in a short amount of time.
Definition: Religion involving a liberation from suffering and full knowledge through nirvana with reincarnation and karma. Cause: Freedom from Hinduism and the never ending cycle of reincarnation. Effect: Stupas were built, broke into Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, diffusion into China.
Mauryan Emperor Ashoka
Definition: (304-232 BCE) King of the Mauryan Empire in India that converted to Buddhism and preached nonviolence. Cause: Overwhelmed by the brutality of his military conquests. Effect: Publicizing Buddhism by inscribing edicts on great rocks and polished pillars of sandstone.
Definition: During Zhou period, with a government based on the familial social hierarchy. Cause: Confucius maintained influence as a ruler through philosophical system adopted by Qin Dynasty. Effect: Patriarchal society and respect for education and learning.
Definition: Early chinese values of avoiding useless struggles and adhering to the path of nature. Cause: Response to Confucianism. Effect: Offered an alternative to Confucianism and encouraged peace and no conflict.
Daoism’s influence on Architecture
Definition: Strong influence on Chinese culture through feng shui. Cause: Response to Legalism and their strict policies. Effect: Feng shui was used to determine orientation for buildings, graves, etc.
Definition: In the Roman Empire, a monotheistic religion with Jesus as messiah spread by Constantine and Paul. Cause: Influence from Judaism and Jesus included in the New Testament. Effect: Became the official religion of the Roman Empire under Constantine.
Paul of Tarsus
Definition: (45-58 CE) A Jew from Tarsus in SE Anatolia that converted to the new creed. Cause: He was an apostle of Jesus. Effect: Spread the message of Jesus to the Gentiles in Roman Empire.
Definition: (Around 400 CE) A Chinese Buddhist monk who made a pilgrimage to the homeland of his faith. Cause: Exploration of Buddhism. Effect: Diffusion of Buddhism to Eastern Asia.
Definition: (Ruled 306-337) Roman emperor who reunited the empire. Cause: He saw a cross when he won a battle and after Diocletian’s resignation. Effect: Establishes Byzantine empire and creates the capital of Constantinople.
Jewish Diasporic Communities
Definition: The dispersion outside the homeland of many Jews. Cause: Assyrians destroyed northern kingdom of Israel and deported its population to the east. Effect: To maintain their religion, Jews created synagogue, built a temple, and drafted Deuteronomic Code.
Definition: An ancient language of India, in which the Hindu scriptures and classical Indian epic poems are written. Cause: Indian scholars wanted to have a written record and writing system in India. Effect: Used for documenting technological and societal advances.
Definition: The rejection of traditional religious explanations and nature of the world through seeking rational explanations. Cause: Wanting to learn how the world was created, what it is made of, and why changes occur. Effect: Pre-Socratic philosophers, Aristotle’s philosophy, Plato’s philosophy, Socrate’s philosophy, and their academies.
Shamanism and Animism
Definition: (Chinese Shang and Zhou) Shamanism is an animistic religion of having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans. Animism: The attribution of a living soul to plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena. Cause: Effort to interpret the phenomena of the natural world. Effect: Ancestry veneration and sacrifices.
Definition: The founder of the Qin Dynasty who standardized and unified China. Cause: China needed a strong ruler to unify it and take it out of the “Warring States Period”. Effect: Standardization brought an increase in trade as common systems of weights and economy made it easier to trade.
Definition: Living family members praying and honoring their ceased family members. Cause: Belief in supernatural universe with gods controlling the fortunes of humans. Effect: Created gender roles in china and female infanticide.
Greek Epic Literature
Definition: The epic Greek literature was passed down orally and finally written down. Cause: Need for greeks to record their epics that were passed down orally. Effect: Cultural elements demonstrate Greek values and morals.
Indian Epic Literature
Definition: Mauryan King, Ashoka was the first to publish edicts. Greatest Indian epics were Ramayana (Prince Rama, incarnation of Vishnu) and Mahabarata (fight for the throne led to the battle and Kurukshetra. The Bhagavad-Gita is about Arjuna with god Krishna and reincarnation. Cause: Need for Indians to record their greatest epics, which were passed down through oral tradition after many centuries. Consequence: Culturally influenced social organization, kings, wars among kinship groups and chivalric values, all of which are reflected in the Vedic Period.
Roman Imperial Administrative Institutions
Definition: Administrative solutions that Romans used to divide up the empire. Cause: Romans needed a way to divide the empire into sections to be ruled. Effect: Individuals received too much power in some areas of Rome.
Definition: The capital of the Byzantine Empire from 324 to 410 when Rome was attacked by Germanic tribes and is located on the Bosporus strait and represented the many changes Constantine was doing to the empire. Cause: The Roman empire got a new ruler in the form of Constantine, after Diocletian resigned in 305, who wanted to move the capital. Effect: Widespread practice of Christianity through Constantine’s support and churches increased division between Byzantine empire and the western empire, increased attacks from Germanic tribes, leading empire and capital into end.
Definition: A system in which people are considered property and forced to work. Cause: Civilizations that were conquered their civilians were made slaves and deep class divisions led to slavery. Effect: Diffusion of slavery and the importing and exporting of slaves and even deeper social class separations.
Definition: Society or government in which the father or eldest male is leader. Cause: Took advantage of women through getting them pregnant and controlling them. Consequences: Families prefer male children, female torture and infanticide, and prejudice.
Problems with Han China and Xiongnu
Definition: War between the Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu over Northern China. Cause :Fighting over valuable land that included trade routes. Effect: Han dynasty gave tribute to Xiongnu to stop their attacks.
Eurasian Silk Road
Definition: Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran. Cause: Idea of expanding Chinese silk trade and making alliances with many kingdoms in central asia. Effect: Traded silk, pottery, spices, horses, gold, etc and diffusion of Buddhism.
Trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
Definition: Trade network that connected Africa. Cause: The need for a network of trade in Africa. Effect: Culture was spread throughout the continent and became more diverse.
Indian Ocean Sea Lanes
Definition: Lanes throughout the Indian Ocean connecting Africa, Middle East, India, and Asia. Cause: The demand for products leading to trade. Effect: Indian Ocean Maritime System, a variety of highly valued products were able be transported to all lands surrounding the Indian Ocean and diffusion of languages, religion, etc.
Mediterranean Sea Lanes
Definition: Trade routes connected the Mediterranean civilizations together. Cause: The need for a resources in other countries by sea travel. Effect: Trade increased and diffusion of cultures spread.
Technology – Stirrups
Definition: A ring attached to a saddle for rider’s foot that first came from Afghanistan. Cause: Balance on a horse or animal was very hard when one had nothing to grip. Effect: Allowed riders to hold weapons without falling off the animal. Knights dominated battlefields of Europe and Tang cavalry in China.
Domesticated animal – Camel
Definition: A large, humped mammal used for travel. Cause: Barbarions/nomads needed a way to travel faster and more efficiently. Effect: Carried heavy loads and could travel further in cold weather (Nomads were pastoralists).
Innovation of Maritime Technology – Dhow Ships
Definition: A sailing vessel with one or more triangular sails, hulls that were sewed, rather than nailed together, and a rudder in the rear of the ship. Cause: Trade between Eastern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, India, and Southeast Asia increased, which resulted in merchants needing a quick and efficient way to trade with different parts of the world. Consequence: Trade in the Indian Ocean became much easier, quicker, and efficient, which resulted in diffusion of goods exclusive to one place.
Definition: In ancient iran, a gently sloping underground tunnel for irrigation. Cause: Need for a stable supply of water in hot, arid climates. Effect: Regularity of water flow.
Effects of Disease on Rome Empire
Definition: The time which followed the conquest of Alexander the Great. Cause: Death of Alexander and started the Greek “Golden Age”. Greek cultural influence emerged and diffused into many of cultures.
Definition: Octavian founded of the Roman Precipitate which replaced Roman senate and laid the groundwork for stability and prosperity. Cause: The Roman Senate was failing and the people needed a stable leader. Effect: Expanded Roman Empire. Internal peace was created and maintained (pax romana)
Definition: Ruler of Byzantine empire, expanded the empire into north africa and Mediterranean and wrote the Corpus Juris Civilis, a reformation of the roman law. Cause: After the rule of Justin I, Justinian was appointed emperor for a reformation of the old Roman law. Effect: Byzantine empire increased in size and increased cosmopolitanism. Also the Corpus Juris Civilis became an example of which many European countries have based their legal systems upon.
Definition: “Roman peace”; the safety and stability that was guaranteed by Roman rule. Cause: Roman Empire had grown and didn’t need to conquer further land. Effect: Movement of people and trade goods started spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas.
Definition: The migrations of the Bantu people throughout Africa and mastered iron. Cause: First agriculturalist people and they needed permanent civilizations. Effect: Bantu language and culture diffused into Africa, replacing many foraging communities.
Environmental Damage – Desertification
Definition: Land degradation in areas resulting from various factors, climatic variations, and human activities. Cause: Farming malpractice, removing too much vegetation, drought, overpopulation, migration in Arabian Peninsula and Middle East. Effect: Land is not fertile and farming communities began to decline and were dispersed and had to resort to a new way of obtaining food.