connected to activities of devil,increased trials and executions in 16th+17th centuries,confessed to practices like allegiance to devil,nocturnal gathering,evil incantations, and special ointments after torture, hysteria declined after religious wars started
Thirty Years War
(1618-1648 CE) War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
joins Thirty Years’ War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years’ War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
Conscript standing armies
army formation developed by Gustavus Adolphus; equal numbers of musketeers and pikemen, standing six men deep; used salvos-everyone firing at once- then a pike charge; notable for flexibility of tactics
The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.
Bishop Jacques Bossuet
principle advocate of divine right of kings during reign of Louis XIV-believed divine right meant that king was placed on throne by God, and therefore owed his authority to no man or group
the idea that monarchs are God’s representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin
Richelieu: chief minister for Louis XIII; only gave Huguenots religious rights, humbled nobles, and had spies compromise noble plans against the monarchy; Mazarin: Richelieu’s successor; a foreigner hated by the nobles
1648 – 1653 French civil wars resenting the increase power of the monarchy & important players in society feeling ignored, monarchy vs. middle class
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715) ruled for the longest time ever
Edict of Fontainebleau
document that officially revoke the edict of nantes, bringing about a direct attack on the huguenots. Louis XIV repeals edict.
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
Louis XIV’s wars
desire for increase in royal power and military glory led to these;4 wars between 1667 and 1713 (vs. Triple Alliance,vs. United Provinces, vs. Holy Roman Empire/League of Augsburg,War of Spanish Succession); left France impoverished and surrounded by enemies
Peace of Utrecht
1713, series of treaties, ended Louis XIV’s attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Group of German territories, ruled by the Hohenzollern family, that became one of Europe’s most powerful states in the seventeenth century. Its military strength was supported by its hereditary landowners who were granted autonomy in their territories.
Frederick William the Great Elector
This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
Ruled Prussia. Their most important state was Brandenburg where the ruling prince was one of the 7 electors to choose the Holy Emperor.
Treaty of Karlowitz
(1699) Treaty in which, for the first time, the Ottoman Empire had to cede territory in the Balkans to its Austrian opponent
They were a dynastic family who ruled Russia from the early 1600s to 1917. The first Romanov to rise to power was Mikhail after a period of internal unrest. The family continued many of the practices and traditions of earlier czars and emphasized allegiance to the Eastern Orthodox Church.
civ. Russia, hereditary peasants who were “tied” to the land; over half of the population were these farmland peasants
The Orthodox Church
150 million. Greece, Eastern Europe. Sees the incarnate Christ as one person (with two natures, one divine, one human)
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Peter the Great. capital city of russia. represented the new western culture of russia. despised because of the taxes it required to be constructed.
Great Northern War
Russia vs. Sweden; *Peter the Great attacked Sweden*; Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies; ended with *Treaty of Nystad*, where *Russia gained Latvia and Estonia* and thus gained its window on the West in the Baltic Sea
Vienna and the Ottoman Empire
the Ottoman Turks laid siege to Vienna and were defeated; after that, they were never considered a threat to Europe again
the polish diet; kings had to share power with them; two-chamber assembly in which landowners completely dominated the few townspeople and lawyers who where also members
The house of Orange
This was the most powerful, dominant family in the Dutch Republic, that provided many of the stadtholders who headed the executive branch of government, including the man who became King William III of England
The port city of Holland, which was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. It became a center of trade later in the Age of Exploration because Holland was a center of banking. CAPITAL OF THE NETHERLANDS PRESENTLY.
This was the Scottish royal family that ruled England after Elizabeth I (the last Tudor); introduced the Divine Right of kings monarchy. Led England into civil war. Eventually ushered in democracy by signing the Bill of Rights.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
radical English religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms, a more egalitarian (equal) society.
This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
1673- An act forbidding anyone except members of the Church of England from holding political office or entering the professions
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government, the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war and believed that all were selfish.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a “social contract” in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Mannerism and El Greco
Mannerism reacted its height of expression in the work of El Greco. His use of elongated and contorted figures, portrayed in unusual shades of yellow and green against an eerie background of trubulent grays, reflect his desire to create a world of intense emotion. Replaced Renaissance art and was portrayed in this man’s work.
Bernini and Gentileschi
1st- Italian sculpture and architect. 2nd= famous woman baroque painter;–Two famous artists of the Baroque period. Began in 16th C. Former created Ectasy of Saint Theresea (sculpture) and latter (a woman) the Judith Beheading Holofernes (painting).
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
The art and literature of the age of Louis XIV; its subject matter was predominantly classical antiquity and the glorification of Louis XIV.
Rembrandt van Rijn
Considered one of the greatest Dutch Baroque artists, his financial success was offset by tragic deaths of two wives and all four of his sons. Painted THE NIGHT WATCH.
(1564 – 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.
Lope de Vega
prolific Spanish playwright, wrote 1500 plays, including “The Sheep Well.”
Racine and Moliere
French playwrights that had a classical style. Racine- Greek tragedian, focused on conflict, and tragic dimensions of life. Moliere- Wrote, produced and acted in his own stayre comedies. Got in trouble with French clergy, king saved his ass.