AP World Chapter 27 Vocab

AP World Chapter 27 Vocab

Zaibatsu
large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II
Zemstvoes
local political councils created as part of Alexander II’s reforms; gave the middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy
Crimean War
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
Trans-Siberian Railroad
railroad that runs from Moscow to Vladivosto on the East coast and is the longest single rail line in the world
Anarchists
people who oppose organized government
Russian Revolution of 1905
A historical term describing a wave of political terrorism, strikes, peasant unrests, mutinies, both anti-government and undirected, that swept through vast areas of the Russian Empire
Duma
Russian national legislature
Kulaks
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour
Matthew Perry
Commodore of the US Navy who opened up Japan with the Treaty of Kanagawa
Russo-Japanese War
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea
Holy Alliance
A league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
Emancipation of the Serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land
Count Sergei Witte
Russian minister of finance from 1892-1903; economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged western investors to build factories in russia
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR
Dutch Studies
Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan
Stolypin Reforms
Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry
Terakoya
Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by the middle of the 19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism
Sino-Japanese War
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China
Decembrist Uprising
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I
Intelligentsia
intellectuals; members of the educated elite
Bolsheviks
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Diet
Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it