AP World Chapter 5 Margin Questions

AP World Chapter 5 Margin Questions

what different answers to the problem of disorder arose in classical China?
legalism-laws/crime and punishment
Confucianism-moral example of superiors
daoism-withdrawal into the world of nature
why has Confucianism been defined as a “humanistic philosophy” rather than a supernatural religion?
it is practical, concerned with human relationships, effective gov’t, and social harmony
how did the Daoist outlook differ from that of Confucianism?
Confucianism emphasizes the importance of education and earnest striving for moral improvement while daoists ridiculed such efforts as artificial and useless
Confucianism values human relationships, daoism is more centered around nature
in what ways did the religious traditions of South Asia change over the centuries?
at first, they performed ritual sacrifices, then they became more philosophical
in what ways did Buddhism reflect Hindu traditions and in what ways did it challenge them?
reflect: life=illusion, karma and rebirth, overcoming ego, meditation, hope for release from the cycle of rebirth
challenge: rejecting Brahmins religious authority, no abstract speculation about God, inequalities of the caste system
what is the difference between the Theravada and Mahayana expressions of Buddhism?
Theravada: buddha=teacher, more psychological than religious, gods not important

Mahayana: buddha=God, heavens and hells, religion of salvation

what new emphases characterized Hinduism as it responded to the challenge of Buddhism?
the masses found it more accessible than the elaborate sacrifices of the Brahmins of the philosophical speculations of intellectuals i.e., action in the world and the detached performance of caste duties might also provide a path to liberation
what aspects of Zoroastrianism and Judaism subsequently found a place in Christianity and Islam?
conflict of God and evil, the arrival of a savior, remaking of the world at the end of time, heaven and hell
what was distinctive about the Jewish religious tradition?
dualistic monotheism
a powerful and jealous deity who demanded their exclusive loyalty
what are the distinctive features of the Greek intellectual tradition?
emphasis on argument, logic, and relentless questioning of received wisdom; its confidence in human wisdom; its enthusiasm for puzzling out the world without much reference to the gods
how would you compare the lives and teachings of Jesus and the Buddha? in what different ways did the 2 religions evolve after the deaths of their founders?
both are spiritual seekers
Buddha: born into royalty, ignored the supernatural, message less threatening to the powerful, natural death, transformed into a god-like figure by his followers

Jesus: lower class, monotheism, sharp sociopolitical edge, spoke more clearly on behalf of the oppressed, brief public life, crucified, eternal salvation

in what ways was Christianity transformed in the 5 centuries following the death of Jesus?
monotheism, antagonism to all other supernatural powers, Christians persecuted, used as a method of unity