AP World History 1-3

AP World History 1-3

Civilization
An advanced society that includes:
Cities
Government
Social Structure (family, class)
Religion
Writing
Art
Complex society
Alternate objective name of a civilization; a society characterized by a great deal of task specialization and differences in access to power and resources
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, they vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria.
Ziggurat
a huge mud-brick temple built by the ancient Sumerians; often at the heart of Mesopotamian cities
Epic of Gilgamesh
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction.
Book of the Dead
ancient Egyptian funerary text that could be purchased and placed on tombs; it consisted of spells intended to assist the journey into the Duat (underworld) and the afterlife
Fertile Crescent
a fertile region in the middle east where farming, domestication of animals, and a first civilization developed
The Andes
mountainous, riverless coastal regions of western South America with the Chavin and Norte Chico civilizations. domestication of the llama, guinea pig, and the potato happened here along with the invention of quipu.
Mesopotamia
ancient region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Middle East; “the land between the rivers” which became the site of the Sumerian civilization–ziggurats, math based on 60s, writing
Papua New Guinea
A center of agriculture that developed independently with taro as a staple crop, which was eventually replaced with sweet potato.
Mesoamerica
center of agriculture with the first civilization of the Olmecs on the Yucatan peninsula
Agrarianism
the settling down in one place, growing crops, rather than a nomadic lifestyle, in contrast to pastoralism
Pastoralism
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry to provide food, clothing, and shelter. Prevalent in regions where farming was difficult, such as arctic tundra, grasslands, & deserts
Verdic religion
the predecessor to Hinduism in the Indus River Valley; was a polytheistic religion involving hymns, sacrifices, and the worship of elements
Diffusion
the gradual spread of agricultural techniques in the Neolithic world but without the extensive movement of agricultural peoples
Cuneiform
first written language, with wedge-shaped symbols on clay tablets, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.
Human revolution
a rapid geographic expansion 50,000 years ago of Homo sapiens within and out of Africa. Culture (invented ways of living) became more important that biological instincts and the environment.
Culture
learned or invented ways of living. includes art, religion, society, & traditions.
last Ice Age
ended 16,000-10,000 years ago; huge glacial sheets covering Europe and North America melted, raising ocean levels, causing the extinction of large animals, and enabling humans to move southwards and develop agriculture.
Egalitarian society
a type of society in which all people had economic, social, and political equality; typical of most hunter-gatherer societies.
Specialization of labor
during the agricultural revolution, only a few farmers were needed to produce food. other people began specializing in different jobs, i.e. shoemaking
Agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Paleolithic era
called the old stone age (from 10,000 to 2.5 million years ago); our ancestors were concerned with food supply; they used stone as well as bone tools; they were nomadic hunters and gatherers.
Hunter-gatherers
people who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive; was our lifestyle for more than 200,000 years and 90% of our history. Effects included the extinction of large animals and the reshaping of land through fire.
Indus River Valley
a center of agriculture/site of a first civilization in India near the Ganges River. Harappan “Indus River Valley people” and Monhenjo-Daro civilization; highly advanced & organized: sewer system, grid streets, uniform building construction
Yellow River Valley
“Huang He Valley” of late neolithic China; a site of one of the first civilizations–rice, millet, oracle bone writing, mythical Xia dynasty, Shang dynasty