AP World History 1450 – 1750 Key Terms

AP World History 1450 – 1750 Key Terms

Babur
founded Mughal Dynasty of India
Akbar
Greatest ruler of Mughal Dynasty – religious tolerance – created Din-i-Ilahi (“Faith of the Divine”), combo of Hindu, Islam, Christianity patron of the arts/literature
Sha Jahan
Indian Mughal ruler – tried (not successfully) to expand frontier – built Taj Mahal
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor – heritage from German Hapsburgs, Burgundy, Spanish heritage – united empires
conquistador
Spanish soldiers, explorers, adventurers who spread across Americas
Henry of Navarre
First French monarch – Bourbon dynasty – religious tolerance for Protestant minority – Edict of Nanates – cared about welfare of people
Hideyoshi
daimyo that unified Japan, only samurai class carry weapons – replaced by Tokugawa
Ivan the Great
quadrupled size of Russia, made Moscow impressive capital of Third Roman Empire, laid foundation for Russian aristocracy, longest rule
Louis XIV
“Sun King” – did he say “I am the state” – longest rule in Europe – made France absolute monarchy, increased France’s powers through foreign wars, built Versailles, symbol of European absolutism
Prince Henry the Navigator
Pushed Portuguese efforts to explore African sea route to Asia
Oliver Cromwell
British military leader – based on meritocracy – though a military dictator, England became first Republic
ronin
masterless samurai between 1180 – 1868
Sikhs
Ten Sikh gurus – Northern India – started religion – Sikhism – unique view of world through one God
Suleiman I
Ruler of Ottoman Empire – same time as Charles V – fair ruler/expanded holdings, reconstructed legal system
Sunni Ali
15th century – great king of Songhai Empire in sub-Saharan Africa – controlled Timbuktu – surpassed Mali Empire
Guinea states
States in West Africa known for gold and African slave labor
Indo-Gangetic Plain
a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh
Lepanto
1571 – Coalition of Catholic states navy defeats Ottoman Empire’s navy – signals beginning of W. European/Spain/Portuguese dominance of Mediterranean and beyond
Act of Toleration
1689 – British law granting tolerance to minority faiths – ends generations of bloodshed
Capitalism
economic system where government stays out of companies choices, market – supply/demand determine product, goal is to make profit to reinvest in company
Entrepreneur
person who starts up company to compete in capitalist system, must secure capital from financing – bank/currency system useful
joint stock company
W. European financial company with capital from investors, used to make a profit – precursor to corporation
Dutch East India Company
Trading corporation for Netherlands – controlled markets and resources of colonies
British East India Company
Controlled trade for Britain – became even stronger than some governments – controlled markets and resources
Treaty of Tordesillas
Pope divides Latin America between Portugal and Spain: Brazil – Portuguese, Spain – everywhere else
Parlement
In France, initially political bodies responsible for recording laws/edicts – eventually pushed power by not recording edicts they didn’t agree with
Baroque
exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, and music. The style started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe
Elizabeth I
England monarch 1558 – 1603, ruled under religious turmoil, Elizabethan Age – golden age of England – Shakespeare, encouraged colonization, didn’t give out nobility
John Calvin
Calvinism – belief in predestination – anti-witches
English Enlightenment
1649 – 1690 – England reduces power of monarchy through overthrow of Cromwell, Glorious Revolution, English Bill of Rights, and writing by John Locke and Thomas Hobbes
Footbinding
began Tang dynasty – 700, eventually spread to all classes, feet bound on girls at 6 years old, status symbol – only rich could afford to do it, symbol of femininity – women willing to go through pain for appearance – see high heel shoes
Huguenots
Protestants living in Catholic France – minority – often persecuted
Italian Renaissance
rebirth of Classical (Greece/Rome) art/architecture – humanistic focus – patrons – families like Medici and the Catholic Church – blended natural world w/ religion – transition away from religion
Jesuits
footsoldiers of the Pope, Society of Jesus, branch of Catholicism after Reformation, focused on educational/universities, missionary work and social justice
Northern Renaissance
spread to Northern Europe – literature, art – blended human form w/ religion – literature/arts in vernacular for the masses
Philosophes
French Enlightened thinkers who tried to explain society/human nature – led to Enlightenment
Puritans
Sect of Protestants in England who dismiss Anglican church, want pure form of Christianity based on Bible, predestination, kicked out to New England – known in the US as pilgrims
Rococo
The Rococo style of art emerged in France in the early 18th century as a continuation of the Baroque style, but in contrast to the heavier themes and darker colors of the Baroque, the Rococo was characterized by an opulence, grace, playfulness, and lightness. Rococo motifs focused on the carefree aristocratic life and on lighthearted romance rather than heroic battles or religious figures
Architecture of the Renaissance
architecture based on mathematical precision, columns, domes, geometrically perfect designs, revival of Roman architecture
Deism
belief that God stays out of our daily lives – he’s a big clockmaker who started the universe, gave us everything we need, and then just watches
Patronage of the arts
Catholic Church and rich families paid artists to decorate walls/architecture/fountains/doors
Printing Press
Gutenberg – led to increased literacy, writing in vernacular, takes power from the Church monopoly on literacy
absolute monarchy
hereditary leadership that controls executive, legislative, judicial decisions
boyars
member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century to the 17th
Cossacks
several peoples living in the southern steppe regions of Eastern Europe and Asiatic Russia, famous for their self-reliance and military skill, particularly horsemanship
creoles
Spanish/Portuguese born in Latin America – on class scale, step below those actually born in Spain/Portugal
devshirme
system of collection of young boys from conquered Christian lands by the Ottoman sultans as a form or regular taxation in order to build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries, or other servants such as tellak
divine right
European belief by monarchs, aristocracy that their right to rule was legitimized/sanctioned by God,I was born into a monarchy, I must deserve it
Dutch learning
Rangaku – method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641 – 1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate’s policy of national isolation
encomienda
system of Spanish rule in Americas where Spanish landowners have right to forced labor for all indigenous people living on land grant
Enlightenment
attempt to apply logic from Scientific Revolution to human nature/government/economics
Estates-General
meeting of French governing body called to find way of bringing in more income to the states, backfires and leads to French Revolution
Glorious Revolution
1688 overthrow of King James in England
Hagia Sophia
former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in the Turkish city of Istanbul
Janissaries
Christian slave army that fought for Ottoman Empire – later developed monopoly on military and resisted technological innovation
Mancus
gold coin in Medieval Europe
mercantilism
economic system where colonies’ market and resources for the sole use of mother country
mestizos
American that is half indigenous person, half European
Mughal dynasty
Muslim dynasty that ruled India
mulatto
offspring of a European and an African
nation-state
a sovereign state of which most of the citizens or subjects are united also by factors which define a nation, such as language or common descent; typically it is a unitary state with a single system of law and government. It is almost by definition a sovereign state, meaning that there is no external authority above the state itself.
parliamentary monarchy
attempt to control monarchy though parliament – first experiment in England – usually controlled budget which controlled/limited monarch
peninsulares
highest of Spanish colonial caste system – peninsular was a citizen born in the metropolitan part of the Spanish Empire. Also, they held high official power or positions.
purdah
practice of requiring women to cover their bodies so as to cover their skin and conceal their form, separates genders, some places more cultural than religious
Qing dynasty
founded by Manch clan from Northeast, not Qin, claimed mandate of heaven, eventually couldn’t keep out Europeans, died
Reconquista
reestablishment of Christian rather than Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula, taking place between 718 and 1492
sovereignty
right to exercise supreme political (e.g. legislative, judicial, and/or executive) authority over a geographic region, group of people, or oneself
Taj Mahal
finest example of Mughal architecture – Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum for his favorite wife, Arjumand Bano Begum, who is better known as Mumatz Mahal
Tokugawa Shogunate
a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Toguawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The warrior-caste of samurai were at the stop, followed by farmers, artisans, and traders
viceroyalty
royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch – usually refers to method of colonial rule
caravel
small, highly maneuverable, three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century, due to size could explore up river
Colombian Exchange
Trade of Americas/Africa/Europe exchange of crops, disease, culture, peoples, pack animals – led to improved diets, massive immigration (some forced)
Northwest Passage
attempt to find water route through North America – none ever found – led to exploration of bays, rivers
Middle Passage
term given for sea voyage of African slaves on way to Latin America/Caribbean/North America – 25 – 50% would perish on trip
triangular trade
trade of African slaves to Caribbean, sugar to industrialized North U.S. and England, manufactured goods to Africa
Catholic Reformation – Counter Reformation
instead of transforming Catholic Church after Protestant Reformation (did get rid of indulgences), stop the spread of Protestantism, both by reforming the Catholic Church, and also by persecuting as heretical those deemed to go too far
commercial revolution
of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately 1520 until 1650. Voyages of discovery in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries allowed European powers to build vast networks of international trade, which in turn generating a great deal of wealth for them
empirical research
data needed to support logical views – theories made not what you believe, but what you can prove
excommunication
kicked out of the Church, threat made for those who had heretical views
Enlightenment
belief that logic, techniques used in Scientific Revolution could be applied to human behavior, government, economics – series of essays/novels – movement away from the Church
heliocentric theory
belief that earth rotates around the sun, contradicts geocentric view held for centuries, and by church that universe revolved around earth
indulgence
selling of passes out of purgatory into heaven to pay for Renaissance architecture/art in Rome, big compliant of Martin Luther
laissez-faire economics
belief that government should not control business – hands off – let market decide success/failure of a product
natural laws
belief that human interaction/rule of law is governed by a set of laws – similar to those found in nature like gravity
Ninety-Five Theses
complaints made by Martin Luther against Catholic Church – nailed to the church university door, started Protestant Reformation
predestination
belief the a long time ago, at the dawn of creation, all spirits and souls were predetermined on who was going to heaven, so… going to heaven not based on works/actions, but on God’s choosing
Protestant Reformation
attempt to reform Church, leads to divide, creation of Protestant faiths that gain legitimacy from the Bible and not from the Church, not as ritualistic as the Church, Bibles written in vernacular, movement divided nations in Europe, led to wars
Society of Jesus
Otherwise known as the Jesuits, Catholic response to Protestant Reformation – encouraged education, human rights
Martin Luther
priest that initiated Protestant Reformation, refused to renounce views, protected by German princes, also wanted clergy to be able to marry
Henry VIII
created Anglican Church, split from Catholic Church because Pope would annul marriage to women who couldn’t produce a male heir
Protestant doctrines
don’t believe in holy trinity, only through Bible/faith in Christ can you go to heaven, priests can be married, don’t take communion, don’t answer to Pope
Saint Ignatius Loyola
Leader of Jesuits – pushed for universities, education, human rights
European religious wars
Following Reformation – European regions fought each other on whether to be Protestant or Catholic, stay Catholic, still pay taxes to Church, Church owns property, but traditional, princes/leaders would change minds & people would have to follow
Thirty Years War
years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today’s Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Hapsburg dynasty was also a central motive
Enlightened monarchs/despots
monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to the kingdoms. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education
Maria Theresa and Joseph II
first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty. She was Archduchess of Austria, and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and ruler of other territories from 1740 until her death. She also became the Holy Roman Empress when her husband was elected Holy Roman Emperor. She was one of the so-called “enlightened despots” . She was one of the most powerful rulers of her time, ruling over much of central Europe.
Frederick the Great
a king of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty, reigning from 1750 to 1786. – enlightened monarch
Copernicus
provided the first modern formulation of a heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system
Galileo
improvements to the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations, the first and second laws of motion, and effective support for Copernicanism. He has been referred to as the “father of modern astronomy”, as the “father of modern physics”, and as “father of science”.
Sir Isaac Newton
By deriving Kepler’s laws of planetary motion from this system, he was the first to show that the motion of bodies on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. The unifying and deterministic power of his laws was integral to the scientific revolution and the advancement of heliocentrism.
Voltaire
Enlightened thinker spoke out against the Church, corresponded with Enlightened Monarchs
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. His legacy as a radical and revolutionary is perhaps best demonstrated by his most famous line in The Social Contract: “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”
class diversification in Europe
growth of middle class between aristocracy and peasantry
population growth and the Agricultural Revolution
need for more food for Industrialization/growing population (little disease, improving health/diet), improved technology, crop rotation, enclosure movement
Adam Smith
Wealth of Nations author, put forth foundation of capitalism – laissez faire, move away from mercantilism
proto-industrialization
16th century. The word was initially applied to cottage industries in the countryside. In spite of the opposition of urban guilds, rural residents were performing many industrial tasks.
Iberian wave of exploration
Portuguese and Spanish move across coast of Africa, exploring quickest route to India, starts wave of exploration, set up forts on islands on coast
Prince Henry the Navigator
sparks European interest in exploration, gave Portuguese a head start, known in English as Prince Henry the Navigator or the Seafarer (Portuguese: o Navegador). He promoted early Portuguese efforts to explore an Adrican route to Asia
Christopher Colombus
“discover” of the Americas, looking for shortcut.western route to East Indies – controversial character – treatment of indigenous people/African slave introduction vs. Colombian Exchange and starting new wave of exploration, starts era of European dominance
Ferdinand Magellan
1521 – led first attempt to circumnavigate the globe
colonization
need for markets, resources for industrializing nations – also needed precious metals to fuel Iberian Peninsula wealth, also Europeans emigrated due to lack of land, overpopulation, chance for new beginning
northern wave of exploration
France, England, Dutch explore North America set up independent colonies with direct ties to Western Europe, less role of the Catholic Church, greater political independence than Latin America, developed more diverse societies than monoculture of Latin America
Jacques Cartier
explorer popularly thought of as one of the major discoverers of Canada.
North American fur trade
Indians and French worked together, massive exporters of fur, beaverskin caps became rage in Europe, French colonized differently, mostly male-dominated initially along Mississippi
Henry Hudson
British explorer, Scandinvavia, Canada, and North Eastern Europe, looked for Northwest passage
New Amsterdam
17th century fortified settlement in the New Netherland territory (1614-1674), fortified trading center that later becomes New York City
Osman I
1299 – Osman is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Empire, and it is from him that its inhabitants, the Turks, called themselves Osmanli until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
sultan
certain Muslim rulers who claimed full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e. the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), without claiming the overall caliphate. It then developed some further meanings in certain contexts. The dynasty and lands ruled by the Sultan is called Sultanate
viziers
-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan
Istanbul
officially known as Constantinople until 1930 when its name was changed to Istanbul. Due to its three-thousand-year old history it is considered as one of the oldest still existing cities of the world
Mehmet II
1480 first Ottoman ruler to claim the title of Caesar of the Roman Empire (supreme ruler of all Christians), besides such usual titles as King, Sultan (ruler of a Muslim state), Khan (ruler of Turks), etc. He made this claim after his conquest of Constantinople (1453), and assumption of that imperial regalia along with his own
millet system
method of working with religious minorities in Ottoman Empire – millets had a great deal of power – they set their own laws and collected and distributed their own taxes. All that was insisted was loyalty to the Empire. When a member of one millet committed a crime against a member of another, the law of the injured party applied, but the – ruling – Islamic majority being paramount, any dispute involving a Muslim fell under their sharia-based law
harem
part of the household forbidden to male strangers. In Western languages such as English, this term refers collectively to the wives in a polygynous household as well as the “no-males allowed” area, or in more modern usage to a number of women followers or admirers of a man
Siege of Vienna
failed attempt by Ottoman Empire to invade Europe, ever since Europe had to fear/keep peace with Ottoman Empire – farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam might be signaled as the battle that finally stemmed the previously-unstoppable Turkish forces
Safavid Empire
native Iranian dynasty from Azarbaijan that ruled from 1501 to 1736, and which established Shi’a Islam as Iran’s official religion and united its provinces under a single Iranian sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity and acting as a bridge to modern Iran
Abbas the Great
strongers leader of Safavid Empire, expanded trade w/ West – Abbas’ reign, with its military successes and efficient administrative system, raised Iran to the status of a great power. Abbas was a skilled diplomat, tolerant of his Christian subjects in Armenia
Isfahan
cultural/political center of Safavid Empire – 3rd largest city in Iran today
Ming dynasty
ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. It was the last ethnic Han-led dynasty in China – vast navy and army were built, including four-masted ships of 1,500 tons displacement in the former, and a standing army of one million troops. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced in North China (roughly 1 kg per inhabitant), and many books were printed using movable type
Francis Xavier
pioneering Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). The Roman Catholic Church considers him to have converted more people to Christianity than anyone else since St. Paul
tea and Chinese trade with Europe
Portuguese discover Chinese tea in 1560s, starts as drink of the wealthy, eventually supply increases, becomes part of daily life of Europe, dominates life
Kangxi
one of the greatest Chinese emperors in history. His reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning Emperor of China in history, though it should be noted that having ascended the throne aged 8, he did not exercise much, if any control, over the empire, that role being fulfilled by his 4 guardians and his grandmother the Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
Ashikaga Shogunate
(1336-1573) was a feudal military dictatorship ruled by the shoguns of the Ashikaga family. most of the regional power still remained with the provincial daimyo, and the military power of the shogunate depended largely on their loyalty to the Ashikaga. As the daimyo increasingly feuded among themselves in the pursuit of power, that loyalty grew increasingly strained, until it erupted into open warfare
Onin War
1467-1477 Civil War that entered into Warring States period – mass struggle of Daimyos
reunification of Japan
The reunification of Japan is accomplished by three strong daimyo who succeed each other: Oda Nobunaga (1543-1582), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), and finally Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) who establishes the Tokugawa Shogunate, that governs for more than 250 years, following the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600
Oda Nobunaga
Nobunaga lived a life of continuous military conquest, to eventually conquer most of Japan before his untimely death in 1582
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
and brought an end to the Sengoku period. He was also known for his invasion of Korea. He is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms
Delhi Shogunate
various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526
Babur the Tiger
founded the Mughal dynasty of India. He was a direct descendant of Timur, and believed himself to be a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother
Aurangzeb
“ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. He was and is a very controversial figure in South Asian history, and is considered a tyrant by most Indians, Hindus, Sikhs, and other non-Muslims During his reign many Hindu temples were defaced and destroyed, and many non-Muslims (mostly Hindus) converted (widely believed forcibly) to Islam.
Askia Mohammed
king of the Songhai Empire in the late 15th century. He strengthened his country and made it the largest in West Africa’s history. At its peak under Muhammad, the Songhai Empire encompassed the Hausa states as far as Kano (in present-day Nigeria) and much of the territory that had belonged to the Mali Empire in the west. His policies resulted in a rapid expansion of trade with Europe and Asia, the creation of many schools, and made Islam an integral part of the empire
gold trade in West and Central Africa
made inland nations rich, relied on slave trade and gold to increase wealth, stunted/slowed industrialization, made African nations dependent, needed to purchase European weapons to expand control of region
Osei Tutu
Leader of loosely run Ashanti confederacy in Africa – of firearms bought from European traders in exchange for gold and slaves he greatly expanded the power of the city-state
Boers
Name given to Dutch immigrants to South Africa, that eventually move inland, come into conflict with Zulus and British who later colonize
apartheid
legalized separating of races in South Africa based on color – you’re either white, colored or black
Zulu
South African tribe led by Shaka Zulu that united tribes through warfare and then posed threat to Boers and British, one of few instances where non-Europeans able to defeat Europeans in battle
European and Arab domination of the East African-Indian Ocean trade network
Portugal and Islam dominated trade of trees, exotic animals, slaves to Arab world, back to Europe
Atlantic slave trade
purchase and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. It is sometimes called the Maafa by African Americans, meaning holocaust or great disaster in kiSwahili. The slaves were one element of a three-part economic cycle—the Triangular Trade and its infamous Middle Passage—which ultimately involved four continents, four centuries and the lives and fortunes of millions of people
sugar production and the slave trade
labor intensive, dangerous, spurred growth of Atlantic Slave trade to Caribbean/Latin America – numbers kept up through extensive trade, not through reproduction – males primarily brought over – overseers keep order violently, absentee landowners
Hernan Cortes
defeated Aztecs due to guns, germs, and steel
Francisco Pizarro
defeated Incas due to guns, germs, and steel and a gullible Montezuma
New Spain
the name given to one of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire from 1525 to 1821 – today it is Central America, plus Mexico, plus Southwest United States
Spanish importation of smallpox and measles
Columbian exchange negative – immunity lacking in indigenous people – led to millions of deaths – huge demographic switch
Bartolome de Las Casas
demonized role of Spanish and Columbus in treatment of Native Americans
silver mining
forever altered world trade – became source of wealth for Portugal/Spain, currency for China, dominated resource of Mexico, extracted minerals from America and sent to Europe
Portuguese sugar production
Portuguese cultivated in Brazil 1532 – surpassed honey as primary sweetener
Peter Stuyvesant
last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City
Jamestown
first British colony in future United States
Plymouth Rock
first British colony in New England – famous Pilgrims – became religious focused w/ semi-theocracy
Massachusetts Bay Colony
first British colony in New England – went on to be Massachusetts – started as joint-stock company
French and Indian Wars
wars between England and France over land, secession, and power – end up being played out in North America – colonists and British vs. French and Indians – debt from these wars eventually leads to high British taxes which lead to American revolution
Russian-American Company
Russian trading company that had monopoly over trade with Alaska