AP World History-1450-1914

AP World History-1450-1914

Civilization
Societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of non farming elites, as well as merchant and manufacturing groups.
Demography
The study of population
Enclave
Any small, distinct area or group enclosed or isolated within a larger one.
Tribute System
is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. It also incorporated certain aspects of regulated trade in goods and services between the parties under a contractual relationship formed upon duress, and based upon the potential for threats if specific performance did not occur.
Silk Road Trade
The most famous of the trading routes established by pastoral nomads connecting the Chinese, Indian, Persian, and Mediterranean civilizations; transmitted goods and ideas among civilization.
Sunni
Political and theological divisions within Islam; supported the Umayyad
Shiite
Political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali.
Sufi
Mystics within Islam: responsible for expansion of Islam to the southeastern Asian and other regions.
Harem
The women in the Muslim household, including the mother, sisters, wives, concubines, daughter, entertainers, and servants.
Concubine
A woman who cohabits with a man to whom she is not legally married, esp. one regarded as socially or sexually subservient; mistress
Hagia Sofia
New church constructed in Constantinople during the reign of Justinian
Dar al Islam
Areas where Muslims are in the majority; countries where Muslims can practice their religion freely; two requirements: 1. Muslims must be able to enjoy peace and security with and within this country, 2. It has common frontiers with some Muslim countries
Feudalsim
the political, military, and social system in the Middle Ages, based on the holding of lands in fief or fee and on the resulting relations between lord and vassal.
Manorialism
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the middle ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchange labor or rents for access to land.
Columbian Exchange
Biological and ecological exchange that took place following Spanish establishment of colonies in New World. People of Europe and Africa came to New World; animals, plants, and diseases of two hemispheres were transferred.
Socialism
Political movement with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.
Communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Utilitarianism
the ethical doctrine that virtue is based on utility, and that conduct should be directed toward promoting the greatest happiness of the greatest number of persons.
Englightenment
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.
Absolutism
the principle or the exercise of complete and unrestricted power in government.
Colonialism
he control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people.
Imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
Swahili
a member of a Bantu people of Zanzibar and the neighboring coast of Africa.
Extraterritoriality
immunity from the jurisdiction of a nation, granted to foreign diplomatic officials, foreign warships, etc.
Sphere of Influence
any area in which one nation wields dominant power over another or others
Protectorate
the relation of a strong state toward a weaker state or territory that it protects and partly controls
Epidemic/Pandemic
affecting many persons at the same time, and spreading from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently prevalent
Islamization
the converting to Islam
Westernization
influencing other areas with Western ideas, customs, practices, etc.
Boyars
– Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in Western Europe
Tarters
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kieva state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact
Tale of Gengi
written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japenese society
Gempei Wars
Gempei Wars.
Tokugawa Shogunate
founded 1603 when Tokugawa Ieyasu was made shogun by Japanese emperor; ended the civil wars and brought political unity to Japan
Junk, Caravels, Dhows
Ships, advanced for the time
Neo-Confucianism
revision of ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
Treaty of Tordesillas
signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain
Encomienda
grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies
Coercive Labor
forced labor
Chattel Slavery
closest to the slavery that prevailed in early American history; chattel slaves are considered their masters’ property; typically racially based
Mercantilism
economic theory that stressed governments’ promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe
Monroe Doctrine
American declaration stated in 1823; established that any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act by the United States; supported by Great Britain as a means of opening Latin American trade
Miscegenation
practice of interracial marriage or sexual contact; found in virtually all colonial venues
Janissaries
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century
Jizya
head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories
Taj Mahal
most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Muhal
Aurangzeb
– son and successor of Shan Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influenced; Incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military success.
Suleyman the Magnificent
built the Suleymaniye, one of the most spectacular mosques by the Ottomans
Muhammad-
prophet of Islam born c.570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father’s family; received revelations from Allah in 610c.e. and thereafter; died in 632
Ottoman Empire
Turkic empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extendeing throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of Byzantine Empire in 1453; succeed Suljuk Turks following retreat of Mongols • Sultans- grew more distant from subjects as empire increased in size and wealth; vizier had more real power; Won the Battle of Chaldrian; Lost the Battle of Lepanto- Spanish & Venetian fleet won, Ottomans lost control of Mediterranean; Had Janissaries- controlled firearms; Coffeehouses- social, men smoke tobacco and do business, poets & scholars congregate; Turkish language was preferred; Decline- corruption among officials and decline in the effectiveness of administrative system
Safavid Empire
• Shiia Muslims- but origins in Sufi mysticism; Red Heads; Persian in government positions- power struggles between Persians and Turks; Shah Abbas the Great- empire at height and prosperity- est. center of international trade and Islamic culture, workshops manufacture silk & textiles, encouraged trade with Portugal, England and Dutch, capital- Isfahan- also captured Russian youth and converted them to Islam; New evidence on women- no effort to cover faces, influence behind throne, involved in palace conspiracies, protected inheritance rights
Mughal Empire-
established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication that any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century • Babur- 1st emperor; Akbar- greatest ruler; Blend of Muslim and Hindu; Decline of Mughal- growing autonomy of local leaders and internal rebellion
Tokugawa Shogunate
founded in 1603 when Tokugawa Ieyasu was made shogun by Japanese emperor; ended the civil wars and brought political unity to Japan
Marco Polo
claimed to have arrived in China around AD 1271, and stayed 17 years, traveling through Mongol territory on the Khan’s missions
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan scholar and traveler; known for the account of his travels and excursions. His journeys lasted for a period of nearly 30 years and covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world. He helped spread the Islamic religion across the Islamic world.
Zheng He
emperors sent out seven seagoing expeditions, their purpose was to glorify Chinese arms in the remote regions and showing off the wealth and power of the Middle Kingdom; brought back trade goods and tribute from many lands, animals; Chinese merchants settled in Southeast Asia and India and spread Chinese culture; emperor’s officials saw no great benefit in exploring expeditions and halted them, the government discouraged trade with foreign countries and forbade construction of seagoing vessels
Manchus
Qing empire; nomads that were building an expansive state of their own north of the Great Wall, set out on a conquest of China
Conquistadors
a conqueror, of the 16th century, Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America, or Peru; three motives were gold, glory and god
Zulu
a member of a Bantu people of southeast Africa, primarily inhabiting northeast Natal province in South Africa; the Nguni language of this people, closely related to Xhosa
Akbar
son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
Shah Jahan
Mughal emperor of India (1628-1658) whose reign ushered in the golden age of Mughal art and architecture; the Taj Mahal was built at his request as a memorial to his favorite wife
Simon Bolivar
Creole military officer in northern South American; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of independent state of Gran Colombia
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians & mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, captured and executed