AP World History 2.2

Mamluks
Turkic military slaves who formed part of the army of the Abbasid Caliphate in the ninth and tenth centuries; they founded their own state in Egypt and Syria from the thirteenth to early sixteenth centuries
Medieval
Pertaining to the middle ages of European history
Mexica
The name given to themselves by the Aztec people
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Middle Ages
The period of European history traditionally given as 500-1500
Minaret
A tower attached to a mosque from which Muslims are called to worship
Mississippians
Were a Chalcolithic (copper age) mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally
Mita
A labor system used by Andean societies in which community members shared work owed to rulers and the religious community
Moldboard Plow
A form of plow consisting of a plowshare (blade) and hitch attached to livestock. It turns the soil in one run across the field, depositing the weeds and remains of the previous crop under the soil and raising the rain-percolated nutrients back to the surface. This plow also allowed for plowing while the ground was wet.
Mound-Builders
In North American archaeology, name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts. The greatest concentrations of mounds are found in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys.
Neo-Confucianism
A philosophy that blended Confucianism with Buddhism and Daoism
Parallel Descent
In Incan society, descent through both the mother and father
Parliament
A representative assembly
People of the Book
A term applied by Islamic governments to Muslims, Christians, and Jews in reference to the fact that all three religions had a holy book
Quechua
Andean society also known as the Inca
Quipus
A system of knotted cords of different sizes and colors used by the Incas for keeping records
Quran
The holy book of Islam
Ramadan
The holy month of Islam which commemorates the appearance of the angel Gabriel to Muhammad; fasting is required during this month
scholar-gentry
The Chinese class of well educated men from whom many of the bureaucrats were chosen
Shariah
The body of law that governs Muslim society
Shinto
The traditional Japanese religion based on veneration of ancestors and spirits of nature
Shogunate
The rule of the shoguns in Japan
Toltecs
Ancient civilization of Mexico. The name in Nahuatl means “master builders.” The formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c. AD 900 after the fall of Teotihuacán.
Umma
The community of all Muslims believers
Zakat
Religious tax, one of the five basic requirements (arkan or “pillars”) of Islam. All adult Muslims of sound mind and body with a set level of income and assets are expected to pay zakat.

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