AP World History 2nd Semester Final Exam Study Guide

AP World History 2nd Semester Final Exam Study Guide

Main Ideas/Significance of Renaissance
~Enlightenment
~humanism
~materialism- not a sin to have lots of money etc.
~art- had perspective; not all Church based
~look back at roots (Greeks, Romans)
Main Ideas/Significance of the Reformation (Protestant)
Ideas: (what it was going against)
~Church had all power and was corrupt- kings were under it too
Significance/Results:
~split Catholic Europe (Catholic and Protestant)
~new ideas
~tension=wars (like the French War)
Response by Catholic Church:
~they thought the Protestants were wrong
~sent Jesuits
What England was like in its religion during the time of King Henry VIII?
~wanted a divorce- Pope wouldn’t allow it
~created the Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made him the “supreme head” of the Church of England
~made Bible required in all churches
~Church of England remained fully Catholic expect for Rome
What England was like in its religion during the time of Queen Elizabeth?
~Protestantism emerged victorious during her reign
~Anglicanism took shape (a middle ground between Protestantism and Catholicism)
~appointed Protestant bishops but decided on keeping traditional clerics
Main Ideas/Significance of the Scientific Revolution
~emphasized the importance of reason
~people started to doubt their beliefs (skepticism) due to natural laws
~starting point of new discoveries about physics
~philosophers like Galileo and Newton
~birth to rational thought
Main Ideas/Significance of the Enlightenment
~ philosophers were optimistic that people were becoming more perfect due to reason
~thought natural laws were a basis for science and humans- included natural rights
~many revolutions were based on the Enlightenment
Characteristics of absolute monarchies vs. constitutional governments in early-modern Europe
Absolutism:
~king controls everything
~monarchy has divine rights
Constitutionalism:
~constitution (higher than president)
~congress/parliament (voting)
~certain rights
What was the world like in terms of European colonies in the 1500-1750’s?
~Trans-Atlantic slave trade
~ mercantilism
~cash crops
~trade triangle between Africa, Europe, and the Americas
Characteristics of the Industrial Revolution in Britain
What they made them fit for Industrialization:
~natural resources (water ways and coal)
~huge work force
~money (Britain was a major trade center)
Results:
~boom in children
~machines making work easier
Karl Marx’s Ideas
~working class (proletariat) should overthrow the government
~classless society
~capitalism is bad
Industrial Revolution’s effects on women’s rights
~increases schooling opportunities
~more jobs (in factories)
~idea of separation of spheres- women would keep the house clean and happy, men would come home from work and relax
Events/Ideas that influenced the American Revolution
~Enlightenment
~Glorious Revolution
~Britain raising taxes due to 7 Years War
~more mercantilism due to 7 Years War
Causes, Goals, Outcomes of the French Revolution
Causes:
~Enlightenment
~successful American Rev.
~Three Estates
~Parliament hadn’t been called in years
Goals:
~more democratic government
Outcomes:
~they failed terribly after the rev.
~napoleon took over
~good thing: middle class emerged
~ conservationists pretended like it never happened, restored monarchy, and restricted freedoms (of speech, etc.)
Social Changes in late 1800’s Europe
~dating
~later ages for marriage
~birth control and abortions were available
~”Age of Steel”
~medicinal breakthroughs (anesthesia)
~women’s rights
Methods/Directions of Russian Expansion before the 1800’s
~south toward the Black Sea- encountered Ottoman Empire (Turks)
~usually went for warm water ports
Ideas/Actions of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great in Russia
~both wanted a port on warm water
~both wanted to be more “Westernized” in the sense of industrialization but not politically
Main Goals/Actions of Russian tsars in the 1800’s
~took the side of conservatives in the conservative vs liberalism debate
~liberal=voting– which was BAD
~liberal=revolutionary=NAPOLEON FROM FRANCE– REALLY BAD
~tsars wanted to keep all of the power
~expansion
~wanted to modernize without political ideas
Characteristics of peasants/laws about them in Russia 1700-1800
~serfs- tied to land- freed in 1860’s
~poor
~new laws in 1700’s gave nobles more power over the peasants
~redemption- had to work to earn their land
Russia’s industrialization in the late 1800’s
~foreign investment
~Trans-Siberian railroad
~government sponsorship
Social Classes in Latin America
~Peninsulares- Europe born
~Creoles-born in Americas but still pure European
~Mulattoes and Mestizos- mixed
~Native Americans and Slaves
Colonial Latin American Colonies
~mercantilism
~cash crops
~social classes
Goals/Outcomes of Latin American Revolutions
~Spanish out
~democracy, representative government
~common people wanted social classes gone
~had everything except for the third goal 🙁
Newly-Independent Latin American Nations
Politics and Economics:
~Neocolonialism
~foreign investment
~cash crops
~didn’t industrialize
Slavery in Africa before Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
~did have slaves
~most were captured in battle
~temporary slavery was common for crimes
~slaves could work to but their freedom
~children of slaves weren’t automatically slaves
Main Ideas of Trans Atlantic Slave trade
~Africans were thought to be inferior to Europeans
~mostly used in colonies for labor in plantations etc.
~millions of slaves were brought to the American colonies
African politics and economics between 1600-1800
~slavery was booming
~kings were rich by selling their people
~lots of political instability
~no real empires/states
South Africa before 1900
~Dutch settlers came
~ emancipation of slaves in 1833
~Anglo-Boer War (South-African War) in 1899-1902
Reasons for European colonization in Africa in the late 1800’s
~raw materials
~more civilization (no more slavery)
~nationalism (proves your a great country)
~better transportation and communication
European rule of African Countries
~imperialism
~make profit for mother country
~tried to stop ethnic conflict
Political, Economic, and Social Characteristics of the Ming and Qing dynasties in 1600’s/1700’s China
~civil service exam
~advanced commercial development
~internal trade
~Confucianism
Events in China in the 1800’s
~Taiping Rebellion in 1851.
~Third Pandemic of Bubonic plague in 1855
~Second Opium War in 1856.
~Tianjin Massacre
~ Sino-French War in 1884.
~First Sino-Japanese War in 1894
Main Goals of Chinese Revolutionaries
~wanted a new government
Purpose of Japan’s isolation
~prevent Western influence
Policies and Actions of Japan’s Government in the Meiji Period
~democracy
~no more social classes
~intensive westernization
~extreme military growth
Japan’s Early Imperialism
~redefined borders to include islands
~took Korea and Taiwan
Early Characteristics of the Ottoman Empire
~main goal was expansion
~advanced military
Britain Gaining and Keeping Power in India
~established the East India company
~too control of all trading posts
~used Indian soldiers
~made treaties w Indian kings
Build Up of WW1 in Europe
~imperialism
~militarism
~nationalism
~ assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
~alliances
Main Ideas of WW1
~trench warfare
~assassination of Franz
~alliances
more on #38
Effects of Versailles Treaty
~money and land from Germany
Middle East after WW1
~UK mandates Mesopotamia (Iraq)
~give Jews land
Outcomes of Russian Revolution
~Russian Parliament
~Lenin tried Communism- gave land to peasants, wiped out foreign debt, got out of WW1
Progress of the Chinese Communists, 1920’s-1940’s
~accept Soviet aid in 1920
~Mao Zedong- autumn harvest uprising
Response of Industrial Nations to the Great Depression
~tried to raise tariffs- reduce global trade
~cut spending
Characteristics of the Soviet Union under Stalin
~industrial and military power
~lots of deaths
~five year plans
~secret police
Main Ideas of the Dictators’ aggression in the years leading up to WW2
~expansion
~appeasement
Main Ideas/Actions of the “Big Three” conference
~wanted no war
~league of nations
~b and f wanted Germany to be punished
Japan and Germany after WW2
~war reparations
~big three took control of these countries and tried to make them stable again
Main Actions of the US during the Cold War
~Truman Doctrine of Containment
~Marshall Plan-aid to Europe
Main reason for de-colonization in Africa and Asia during WW2
~many countries were economically weak
~Britain didn’t to risk relations w US
~no more colonial uprisings
Eastern European Communist Control 1950-1980
~weak
~opposed by LoN
~people weren’t happy
Postwar Characteristics of Europe
~decolonizing
~ devastated
Main Ideas of Japan’s economy after WW2
~poor, weak
~US had to hold it up
~falling apart
~now its strong
Characteristics of China under Mao Zedong
~wanted to overthrow all power
~everyone work together
Main Ideas of Israel/Palestine dispute
~Israel took more land after Palestine and friends attacked
Iraq and Iran- Conflicts and Main Ideas from 1970-1980
~war
~trench warfare
Main Ideas of the Africa independence movements
~increased nationalism
~looked at India
~no struggle
Newly-independent African Nations
~were a lot like their mother countries
~still trade w mother countries
~nationalism
~kept their cash crops
Main Ideas of Postwar Latin America
~wan’t affected much
~kept cash crops