AP World History (600-1450)

Muhammad
About 610, Muhammad had a transformational spiritual experience and traveled through the Arabian Peninsula proclaiming that he was the last prophet of Allah. He believed in on God / Allah’s words were given to Muhammad and collected by his followers and compiled in Quran
Expansion of Islam
Work of early caliphs who spread the word through pilgrimages / 633-637, Muslims took control of the Byzantine Syria and Palestine and seized most of the Mesopotamia from the Sassanids / 640, Muslims conquered Byzantine Egypt and North Africa / 651, Muslims controlled the Sassanid dynasty and Persia / 781 Muslims controlled Hindu India, north Africa, and the lberian Peninsula / Muslims allowed conquered people (especially Christians and Jews) to maintain their own religious practices but required those who did not convert to Islam to pay a tax (jizya) / Positions of power and authority were reserved for Muslims
Abbasid Caliphate
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad’s uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258. (p. 234)
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Commercial Trade within Eastern Hemisphere
Commercial centers in Nishapur, Bukhara, and Samarkand facilitated the revival of trade over the Silk Road / Classical roads, originally commissioned by India and Persia and revived by Muslims, provided quick and efficient travel through the dar al-Islam / Overland trade was conducted by camel caravan / Caravansaries provided lodging, food, and water for traveling merchants and their animals
Technological Trade within Eastern Hemisphere
Technological advances such as compass, the lateen sail, and the astrolabe led to increasing travel in the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean
Abbasids Trade within Eastern Hemisphere
Abbasids encouraged larger-scale trade by re-instituting letters of credit–sakk (checks, an idea later used in Europe)
The Quran and Women 1
Improved the security of women in Arabian society: outlawed female infanticide and ruled that dowries go to the bride
The Quran and Women 2
Described women as honorable individuals equal to men, not property
The Quran and Women 3
Both the Quran and Sharia emphasized male dominance: descent through the male line, male inheritance, strict control of women by male guardians
The Quran and Women 4
Social customs were influenced by islamic beliefs: men were permitted to take up to four wives (polygamy), women were veiled in public
Dar al-Islam
Arabic term referring to the ‘house of Islam’ and the lands under Islamic terms
Persian Influences on the Dar al-Islam
Administrative techniques; ideas of kingship (greatly influence caliphs); Persian, the language of literature, poetry, history, and political thought (for example, The Arabian Nights)
Indian Influences on the Dar al-Islam
Mathematics, Arabic/Hindi numbers, symbols for zero, algebra, trigonometry, geometry
Greek Influences on the Dar al-Islam
Philosophy, science, medical writings (especially Plato and Aristotle). Arabic Libraries and museums held translated Greek and Roman works
Quran
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
Grand Canal
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
Sui Dynasty
As one of the ephemeral dynasties in Chinese history, this existed for only 38 years, was established by Yang Jian in 581. Built a strong central government with work done by peasants. Public works projects included palaces, granaries, and repair of defensive walls; Most elaborate project was the Grand Canal.
Tang Dynasty
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 and ended 907. The Tang emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang’an. Confucian ruler. Maintained empire through a system of roads with horses, human runners, inns, postal stations, and stables. Equitable distribution of agricultural land kept land out of the hands of wealthy elite. Government jobs in extensive bureaucracy were merit based, determined through a series of civil service examination. Military conquests included Manchuria, Tibet, Korea and the northern part of Vietnam
Li Shimin
One of the founders of the Tang Empire and its second emperor (r. 626-649). He led the expansion of the empire into Central Asia. (p. 277)
Mongols
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
Song Dynasty
Empire in southern China (1127-1279; the ‘Southern Song’) while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.
Bureaucracy too big
Financial problems faced by the Song
Scholar bureaucrats’ limited Military experience
Reasons for Song’s Military Failure
Neo-Confucianism
Developed in response to the growing popularity of Buddhism. Shows the influence that Buddhism had on Chinese Society and throughout East Asia over a long period
Zhu Xi
Neo-Confucianism philosopher wrote ‘Family Ritual’
Family Ritual
Book written by Zhu Xi. Detailed set of instructions for weddings, funerals and other family ceremonies stresing appropriate personal behavior and social harmony
Xiongnu
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these ‘barbarians,’ as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century. (168)
Nomadic People from Northeastern Asia
Who were the early inhabitants of Japan and where did they come from?
Nara
This was an agricultural society inspired by Tang China, instituted a series of reforms to centralize power. It was built as a replica of Chang’an
Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism
Japan fused their traditional Shinto beliefs with whom?
Heian period
Name the Japan’s period where power was centralized in Fujiwara family; boys only received a formal education based on Chinese values; women contributed to Japanese literature
equal field system
Decline resulted from a failure of this system; land became concentrated in the hands of a small group of wealthy elite
Kamakura Shogunate
The first of Japan’s decentralized military governments. (1185-1333)
Ashikaga Shogunate
The second of Japan’s military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the Muromachi Shogunate.
Daimyo
(in feudal Japan) one of the great lords who were vassals of the shogun. Feudal Warriors in Japan
Shogun
a hereditary commander-in-chief in feudal Japan. Because of the military power concentrated in his hands and the consequent weakness of the nominal head of state (the mikado or emperor), the shogun was generally the real ruler of the country until feudalism was abolished in 1867.
Samurai
a member of a powerful military caste in feudal Japan, esp. a member of the class of military retainers of the daimyos. They observed bushido (the way of the warrior), which emphasized the importance of loyalty to the warrior’s lord
Tokugawa dynasty
This Dynasty ended Japan’s medieval period. Centralized power and unified Japan in the sixteenth century
Frankish Empire
Built a society based on agriculture in northern region of Europe (France, Germany, and Low Countries) and oversaw the development of decentralized political institutions in those areas.
Charlemagne
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Clovis
During the period of 465-511, he was the king of the Franks. He extended Merovingian rule to Gaul and Germany, making Paris his capital. After his conversion to Christianity, he championed orthodoxy against the Arian Visigoths, finally defeating them in the battle of Poitiers
Frankish
Unification of this western Europeans made possible Muslim defeat at Tours in circa 732
Carolingian Empire
This dynasty is seen as the founders of France and Germany.
Feudalism
Basic concept refers to the political and social order of medieval Europe; based on a heriarchy of lords and vassals who controlled political and military affairs
Vassal
a person holding a fief; a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord
Feudal System
Independent of European System, instituted in Japan under the Tokugawa Shogunate
Fiefs
Land was given in exchange for protection; lords lived off the surplus crops of their vassals
Chivalry
Feudalism code of conduct in Europe
Bushido
Feudalism code of conduct in Japan
Knights
Feudalism warriors in Europe
King
What do you call feudal ruler of Europe
Emperor
What do you call feudal ruler of Japan. Really a fugurehead, control rested with shogun
Manor in medieval Europe
A large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord’s residence, outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.
Manor
A large estate consisting of fields, meadows, forests, domestic animals, lakes, rivers, and the serfs bound to the land.
manors
Small local markets (usually located near monasteries) with goods they could not produce themselves (examples: salt)
Lord of manor
This is usually a political and military leader responsible to provide police service, and justice for the manor
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Byzantine Empire
Historians’ name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from ‘Byzantion,’ an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Constantine
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion.
Pax Romana
What is the Latin word for ‘Roman Peace’: The stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of culture/ideas
Roman Peace
What do you call that Roman period, where: was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the powerful Roman Empire in the first and second centuries AD. Since it was established by the Emperor Augustus it is sometimes called Pax Augustus. …
Feudal Monarchies
With strong central power uniting western Europe after the fall of Rome, regional monarchies developed in France and England
Hugh Capet
He was the king of France elected in 987 and founding the Capetian dynasty (940-996) . He succeeded the Carolingians; his descendants, known as the Capetian kings, used their power and resources to systematically consolidate and expand their power
Capetian dynasty
Hugh Capet, the king of France elected in 987 and founding this dynasty (during 940-996)
Norman dukes
These were English feudal monarchies, who built a tightly knit state in which all power disseminated from them
Bologna, Genoa, Mila, FLorence and venice
These feudal monarchies were found in this papacy (the government of the Roman Catholic Church) and Italian city-states
Papacy
the government of the Roman Catholic Church
Feudal Monarchies
Maintained order, provided relatively stable and effective government, later provided impetus (a force that moves something along) for ocean-going explorations
impetus
a force that moves something along. Something that impels, a stimulating factor; A force, either internal or external, that impels; an impulse; The force or energy associated with a moving body; a stimulus; An activity in response to a stimulus
Taxes and Army
What were the essential components to state building in Western Europe?
Post Hundred Years’ war
France and England raised armies and levied taxes after …..
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century / A trade network that developed in the Baltic and North Sea; encompassed the commercial centers of Poland, northern Germany, and Scandinavia; linked to Mediterranean through the Rhine and Danube River
Hansa
Hanseatic League is also called as? The trading system allowed trading of grain, fish, furs, timber and pitch
clergy, warrior, worker
During Feudal Society in Europe, the medieval society was usually divided into three classes?
political, social, economic
During Feudal Society in Europe, the medieval society was usually divided into three; clergy, warrior, and worker–a clear illustration of these inequalities that existed during the Feudal Society in Europe
Franks solidified Christianity
Who solidified Christianity as a foundation of the empire when Clovis converted
Italy worked to spread Christianity North
Which country worked hard to spread Christianity north
Pope Gregory I
Which pope protected the city of Rome and the church by mobilizing forces for the purpose of defense; he reasserted papl supremacy and increased the role and importance of the church in people’s lives
Ghengis Khan
The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the ‘oceanic’ or ‘universal’ leader. He was the founder of the Mongol Empire.
Karakorum
Where was Ghengis Khan’s luxurious capital?
Army
What did Ghengis Khan valued theeee most
Equestrian skills
What was the favorite game during Ghengis Khan era?
Cavalry
Ghengis Khan army was made of what? What was the backbone of Ghengis Khan’s army?
United central Asia, Tibet, northern China, Persia and central Asia
Name Ghengis Khan’s conquered lands
Marco Polo
Who traveled from Italy to China during Mongol times?
First European merchants
Marco Polo inherited passion from dad and uncle, who were among ‘what’ to visit China?
Kublai Khan
Marco Polo was introduced to which Mongol King by his father and uncle?
Columbus
Marco Polo inspired whom to attempt to find a passage to the East?
Muslims
Mongols and western Europe were both enemies of people of which religion?
Jurasalem
European crusaders tried to recapture which state from the Muslims
Abbasid Empire
Mongols attacked which Muslim empire from the east?
Pope Innocent IV
What was the name of the pope which sent missionaries to convert the Mongol Khan
Kublai Khan
Who was the grandson of Chinggis?
Kublai Khan
Who consolidated Mongols rule in China?
Mongol Empire
Which empire failed to conquer Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, Java and Japan?
Golden Horde
What is the name of a group of Mongols which overran Russia during 1237-1241 and also explored Poland, Hungary, and eastern Germany?
Hulegu
What was the name of Kublai Khan’s brother?
Hulegu
Which of the Mongol Emperors conquered the Abbasid Empire in Persia and attempted to expand to Syria, but failed?
il-khanate
Mongol rule in Persia deferred to local Persian authorities, who administered *whom* as long as they delivered taxes to the Mongols and maintained order?
Yuan Dynasty
Mongol Empire established *which* dynasty in China in 1279?
Pax Mongolica
Mongol Empire established Yuan Dynasty in China in 1279, ushering in a period known as *what*?
Financial issues (excessive spending and reduced revenues) and Mongols lacked experience in governing a settled society
What were the two main reasons for Mongol rule in Persia and China (Yuan Dynasty) to decline shortly after the death of Kublai Khan?
paper money
Il-khan tried to save itself from economic ruin by introducing *what*.
Il-khanate
Mongols declined because of Economic troubles, but that was also couled with fractional struggles in Persia, and when the last Mongol rulers died without an heir in 1335, *what* collapsed?
bubonic plague
In China, one of the growing list of problems for Mongols to deal, inflation and epidemic disease. What was the name of the disease which resulted in depopulation and labor shortage?
depopulation and labor shortage
During Mongols empire, what did Bubonic plague do in China?
Mongols
Bubonic plague started during whose empire?
Osman
Ottoman empire was established by whom?
Ottoman Empire
Name the empire, which was established by Osman when he declared independence from Seljuk sultan and begsan to build a state out of the declining Byzantine Empire in 1299
Osmanlis or Ottomans
Name the followers of Ottoman Empire
multinational centralized bureaucracy
What did Ottoman empire created (hint 3 word)?
Balkan
Ottoman empire established foundations for empire in *what* Peninsula; delayed by Tamerlane when he destroyed Ottoman forces in 1402, but after Tamerlane’s death Ottomans reestablished power
Istanbul
In 1453, Sultan Mehmud II (Mehmud the conquerer) captured Constantinople and renamed it to what?
Byzantine Empire, Greece, Balkan region
By 1480 Ottomans controlled these THREE regions. Could you name them?
Ghana
Primary State of West Africa–located between the Senegal and Niger rivers ca 750-1250
trans-Saharan trade
Ghana became increasingly important as a result of increased *what*?
False
Did Ghana produced gold. True / False?
south
Ghana did not produce gold but acquired from the *where*?
gold taxation ivory slaves
Ghana strengthen its empire through these FOUR activities
gold
Ghana received horses, cloth, manufactured goods and salt in exchange of *what*?
True
Did Islam spread in Ghana T/F
trade routes
Islam spread to Ghana across *what* routes?
trade
Southeast Asia, Africa and India are well connected by ?
Han Dynasty
Silk road was established in *which* dynasty?
silk roads and sea
In eastern hemisphere goods traveled through two primary routes
Major Trading cities
Hangzhou, Alexandria, Khanbaliq, Kilwa, Constantinople, Quanzhou, Cairo, Melaka, Venice, Cambay, Timbuktu and Caffa were *what* during the Eastern Hemisphere study?
pay taxes
Trade cities enjoyed tremendous wealth as a result of their status as major trading ports; inhabitants usually did not have to *what*?
Mongol military campaigns and Black Death
With the exception of *these events*, there were no significant interruptions to trade
Black Death
Name the famous period where the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
trade
Larger ships and improved commercial organization led to an increase in the quantity and quality of *what* in the Indian ocean basin?
Rhythms of monsoons taken into account, larger shipsable to go farther from the coastline, warehouses built to store goods
Name 3 advances in planning when trading in Indian Ocean started
monsoons
When trading in Indian ocean, trade conducted in stages because *this weather* forced mariners to stay in ports for months awaiting for favorable winds
Indian ports
What are these Cambay, Calicut, Quilon
trading route between China and Africa
What was the importance of Indian ports Cambay, Calicut, Quilon?
gold iron ivory
During trading in the Indian ocean, East African city-states traded these 3 minerals
silk and porcelain
During trading in the Indian ocean, China provided these 2 things, What were the two most important Chinese exports at the time of the Tang and Song dynasties? (rice and silk/spices and tea/silk and porcelain/jade and paper)
Portugal
Which country controlled trading in the Indian Ocean beginning in the 16th century
Sahara
Name the largest desert in the world. Means “desert” in Arabic. It stretches about 3,000 miles across the continent, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, & also runs 1,200 miles from north to south. Temperatures can rise as high as 136.4°F in the summer, hot enough to fry an egg on the sand. But temperatures can also fall below freezing at night in winter. Only about 20% of the this desert consists of sand. Towering mountains, rock formations, & gravelly plains make up the rest. For instance, the Tibesti Mountains, located mostly in northwestern Chad, rise to heights of more than 11,000 feet. Other African deserts include the Kalahari & the Namib
70 to 90 days
During the Trans-Saharan trading time, the caravans of Camels crossed the Sahara in how many days?
Ghana Mali Songhai
During the Trans-Saharan trading time, Kingdoms such as these three countries of western Africa were important in connecting the Mediterranean basin to sub-Sahara Africa
North Africa
Arab conquerors established islam in this area during the seventh and eighth centuries, coinquered Ghana in West Africa, and converted leaders of Mali and Songhai
Mali and Songhai
Arab conquerors established Islam in North Africa during the seventh and eighth centuries, coinquered Ghana in West Africa, and converted leaders of these 2 countries
dar al-Islam
Islamic merchants were an important part of the trans-Saharan trade and later introduced Islam to Mansa Musa in Mali spreading *what*?
south north
Gold, slaves, ivory from *where* were exchanged for cloth, horses, salt and manufactures wares from *where*
Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Isabella
1451 – 1504 Spanish queen who funded Columbus’s expedition to America
Ferdinand
King of Aragon; married Isabella to create stronger unitied nation in Spain
Bahamas
Where did Columbus finally land in 1492
Asian mainland
Columbus returned without gold, silk and spices from Asia, but he insisted that he has reached island off *which* mainland
discoveries
In three subsequent voyages, Columbus never admitted he had not reached Asia; his *what* led to other expeditions in the Caribbean and the Americas, and the lands were claimed for Spain
Renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
Renaissance
a period in European history of the rebirth of learning based on the knowledge of ancient roman and greek learning; mainly in art, philosophy, invention, exploration, and religious reform
Humanism
a cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements, and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology or science
Donatello
Italian sculptor renowned as a pioneer of the Renaissance style with his natural, lifelike figures, such as the bronze statue David.
Michelangelo
He was born in a Florentine family. He was a sculpter, painter, and architect. His most famous works were the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which portrayed Genesis. His other works were Creation and Flood.
Zheng He
Led 7 voyages among the most impressive in history, between 1405 and 1433
Zheng He
was a Chinese mariner of Turkic/Semu descent, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of “Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean” (Chinese: 三保太監下西洋) or “Zheng He to the Western Ocean”, from 1405 to 1433
Zheng He
He traveled to the Southeast Asia, Ceylon, India, the Persian Gulf, Arabia, and the East African coast, where he established tributary relationships. His technologically advanced fleets and armies were able to face any adversity
Mansa Musa
ruled Mali from 1312 to 1332; spread interest in Mali as he journied to Mecca
Mansa Musa
a king of Mali in the 1300s
Mansa Musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa
Mansa Musa
made hajj to Mecca with thousands of slaves each carrying 5lb. bar of gold, europeans wanted slaves and money so they wanted to hook up with West Africa
Mansa Musa
king of the Mali empire in West Africa, is known mostly for his fabulous pilgrimage to Mecca and for his promotion of unity and prosperity within Mali
Mansa Musa
built mosques to honor Islam and sent subjects to study under muslim scholars
Mansa Musa
this king established religious schools with Arabian and North African teachers
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. (p. 373)
Ibn Battuta
a young Arab lawyer from Morocco, who, in 1325 began his travles through the muslim world for 30 years, covering a distance of more than 73,000 miles
Ibn Battuta
(1304-1369) Morrocan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. His writings gave a glimpse into the world of that time period.
Ibn Battuta
was a Moroccan scholar and traveller who is known for the account of his travels and excursions called the Rihla (Voyage). His journeys lasted for a period of nearly thirty years and covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessors and his near-contemporary Marco Polo.
Bantus
This east African culture migrated to the eastern coast of Africa–bringing agriculture, cattle herding, and iron metallurgy–and developed complex societies governed by small, local states
Swahili
a Bantu language widely used as a lingua franca in East Africa and having official status in several countries. Also called Kiswahili .
Swahili
a Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast
Swahili
controlled the eastern coast of Africa from Mogadishu to Kilwa and the Comoro Islands and Sofala
Eric the Red
Norwegian adventurer who founded a colony on Greenland
Eric the Red
was a Viking who found and named Greenland. Even thought this was a cold land Eric the Red named it Greenland to encourage people to come to this area to settle.
Lief Ericsson
established a colony in Newfoundland, Canada, for Scandinavia and called it Vinland–it had plentiful supplies of timber and fish
Norwegians
a Scandinavian language that is spoken in Norway. the North Germanic language of Norway.
crusades
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
crusades
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
crusades
wars to recapture the holy land of Palestine from Muslims
Palestine and Jerusalem
There were crusades against the Cathars and other heretics in the Balkans, but the term usually refers to the series of five holy wars declared by Pope Urban II in 1095 against Muslims in an effort to recapture these two states.
Results of Crusades
christians failed to recapture the holyland, feudalism declined, power of kings increased, cultual diffusion, trade grew, conflict between christian, Jews, Muslims, grew
Results of Crusades
European-Middle Eastern contact stimulated commerce; breach between Eastern and Western Christianity did not heal; deep seeded hostility arose among Christians, Muslims, and Jews; Europe failed to hold onto Holy Land very long; facilitated exchange of ideas
Results of Crusades
European technology improved
Results of Crusades
Byzantine Empire, feudal nobles, and papal (of or relating to a pope or to the papacy.) power and the church were weakened
Toltecs
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. (p. 305)
Toltecs
70 miles north of Mexico City. Toltecs built their capital city there. 10th-12th centuries the Toltecs dominated most of mexico
Toltecs
Migrated to central Mexico, settled Tula during the eighth century
Toltecs
Irrigated crops of maize, beans, peppers, tomatoes, chilies, and cotton from the Tula River to support 60000 people at peak
Aztecs
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Aztecs
Formed a large empire in present-day Mexico with Tenochtitlán as its capital. Had own writing system. Population destroyed by Cortes. In central mexico. Made their homeland where they say an eagle on a cactus with a snake in its mouth. Found in Lake Texcoco. Native Americans who lived in Mexico until the Spaniards came in the 16th century. Their most famous leader was Montezuma
Chinampas
This is a farming system developed by Aztec. Aztec fished at first, then developed this system (shaped mud from lake floor into small plots of land that ‘floated’ in the middle of the lake);developed a system of canals to irrigate in the dry season and grew beans, squash, maize, tomatoes, peppers, and chilies for exchange in the maketplace
the cannibal kingdom
Aztecs were known as this kingdom for their widespread practice of human sacrifice
Mesoamerican
Aztec religion–Gods: Tezcatlipoca, “The smoking Mirror” (the giver and taker of life) and Quetzalcoatl, “the feathered Serpent” (supported arts, crafts, and agriculture). Sacrificed humans to appease war god, Huitzilppochtli; built a temple in the center of Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlán
the ancient capital of the Aztec empire, founded c. 1320. In 1521, the Spanish conquistador Cortés destroyed it and established Mexico City on its site.
Bubonic Plague
1/3 of all Europe’s pop died, spread by rats, brought by sailors to Crimea, work shortage, wages for skilled laborers soared.
Bubonic Plague
This plague killed 90% of China in the northwest and a third of European population. This completed disrupted trade
Bubonic plague
this plague did not spread in Scandainavia in any appreciable number–cold winters did not foster the spread of pathogens; did not impact India negatively
Incan Empire
spread through parts of what are now Peru, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina. , lived in the Andes Mountains in South America, ate primarily potatoes
Incan Empire
In this empire the bureaucrats used a quipu (a variety of cords in different colors and lengths) to keep track of population, taxes, state property, and labor owed to government
Cuzxo
What was the capital of Incan Empire. It was aso center of administrative, religious and ceremonial duties
Oceania
a large group of islands in the south Pacific including Melanesia and Micronesia and Polynesia (and sometimes Australasia and the Malay Archipelago)
Development of Oceania
Aboriginal people of Australia, isolated from other societies, created trade and exchange networks with other hunting and gathering societies as far away as 1000 miles. Traded items such as stone clubs, trinkets (a small ornament or item of jewelry that is of little value), flowers, and iron axes. New Guineans herded swine and cultivated toot crops. This development had no contact with advanced societies until late 1700s
Ming Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. Founded by Taizu. Chinese dynasty that provided an interval of native rule between eras of Mongol and Manchu dominance.
Emporer Hongwu
He established this Ming (“brilliant”) dynasty, following the Yuang dynasty, in 1368; his immediate goal was to remove all signs of Mongol rule
eunuchs
these kind of people (sterile men who could not produce a family to challenge the dynasty) were used to increase the power of central government during the Ming Dynasty
New Zealand, Tahiti, Marquesas Islands, Hawaiian Islands
Name four settlements of Pacific Islands
yams, potatoes, breadfruits, bananas, coconut and taro
Name 6 kinds of food Pacific Islands produced
Sufis
mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, & simple life

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