AP World History: An Essential Coursebook, 2nd Edition by Ethel Wood (I)

AP World History: An Essential Coursebook, 2nd Edition by Ethel Wood (I)

The Indochina peninsula constitutes what modern-day countries?
Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
The Arabian peninsula constitutes what modern-day countries?
Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Qatar, UAE, Bahrain
The Balkan peninsula constitutes what modern-day countries?
Greece, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria
The Iberian peninsula constitutes what modern-day countries?
Spain and Portugal
The Korean peninsula constitutes what modern-day countries?
North and South Korea
The Yucatan peninsula constitutes what modern-day country?
Mexico
The Malay peninsula constitutes what modern-day country?
Malaysia
The Indian peninsula constitutes what modern-day country?
India
Periodization I
8000 BCE-600 BCE
Periodization II
600 BCE-600 CE
Periodization III
600 CE-1450 CE
Periodization IV
1450 CE-1750 CE
Periodization V
1750 CE-1900 CE
Periodization VI
1900 CE-present
absolutism/absolute monarch
a form of government where the ultimate authority rests in the hands of a monarch who claimed to rule by divine right and was responsible only to God
armada
a fleet of warships, specifically Spanish
Baroque
a style that dominated Western painting, sculpture, architecture and music from about 1580 to 1730 (Period. IV), generally characterized by elaborate ornamentation and dramatic effect
John Calvin
One Protestant variation was established in Switzerland by this man, whose religion centered on the belief in a stern and vengeful God, whereas Martin Luther’s followers believed in a merciful God.
Calvinism
the doctrines and teachings of John Calvin or his followers
“early modern” period
The fourth period in the study of world history is the chunk of time from c. 1450 CE to c. 1750 CE (Period. IV), a considerably shorter era than the previous three periodizations, but one in which momentous changes took place. It is often called this because events that occurred then have directly shaped important regional political units of today’s world and influenced interrelationships among modern cultures.
land-based powers
Followed patterns that political organizations had used in most places for centuries. Governments controlled territory by building armies, bureaucracies, roads, canals, and walls that unified people and protected them from outsiders. The focus was on territory in such countries/kingdoms.
sea-based powers
In Western Europe; built their power by controlling water routes, developing technologies to cross the oceans, and gaining wealth from trade and land claims across oceans.
Leonardo da Vinci
A patron-supported artist (Medici family of Florence) born in the mid-to-late 1400s and whose best-known works include the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper.
Michelangelo
(1475-1564) A patron-supported artist (Medici family of Florence) who was commissioned by the RCC to paint extravagent murals in the Sistine Chapel and other ornate rooms of the Vatican administrative complex in Rome; among his most notable works in the Sistine Chapel are the Creation Of Adam and the Last Judgment.
Raphael
A patron-supported artist (Medici family of Florence) born in the mid-to-late 1400s and whose best-known works include the School Of Athens and the Madonna And Child.
Lorenzo de’ Medici ruled Florence from
1469-1492 (Period. IV)
Medici family
From Florence, a rich merchant family that supported Renaissance artists such as da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo.
Dome of the Cathedral, or the Duomo, is a famous example of Renaissance architecture evident to this day in Florence, Italy. It is part of the
Santa Maria del Fiore, that was completed in the mid-15th century
Northern humanists were more religious than the
Italians, and as a result, tended to blend secular and religious interests.
Erasmus of Rotterdam
A humanist Dutch priest who published the first Greek edition of the New Testament in 1516, and also produced a revised Latin translation that corrected mistakes made over centuries of copying manuscripts.
The influence of humanists was enhanced after 1450 with the printing advances made by a German goldsmith and printer named
Johann Gutenberg of Mainz
The Gutenberg Bible was first printed in
1454, and the craftsmanship that created it was widely admired and imitated across Europe.
During the early 16th century, the Italian city-states were attacked repeatedly by the French, Spanish, and German armies, and their very existence as independent states was threatened. In response to these threats, this man wrote The Prince, a famous philosophical view of the ideal political leader, based on his view of ancient Roman rulers.
Niccolo Machiavelli
Calvinism spread to the British Isles, but Britain soon embraced yet another version of Protestantism when Henry VIII established this. His actions were not based on religious beliefs, but instead on the pope’s refusal to allow him to divorce his wife, who had not borne a male heir to the throne.
Anglican Church
celibacy
abstinence from sexual intercourse, especially by reason of religious vows
commonwealth
the English state and government from the death of Charles I in 1649 to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660
vernacular
the common language of the people
tithe
1/10 of a person’s income which a person gave to the RCC
theology
the study of religion and religious truth
Renaissance
the “rebirth” of classical culture that occurred in Italy and spread to all of Europe between 1350 and 1550 (Period.’s III + IV)
recant
to withdraw or retract a statement
Huguenots
French Calvinists (French Protestants)
True Cross of Christ
In the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance, there was a wide general acceptance of the origin of this and its history preceding the Crucifixion, as recorded by Voragine. This general acceptance is confirmed by the numerous artworks that depict this subject, culminating in one of the most famous fresco cycles of the Renaissance, the Legend of [This] by Piero della Francesca, painted on the walls of the chancel of the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo between 1452 and 1466, in which he reproduces faithfully the traditional episodes of the story as recorded in The Golden Legend.
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
The Franciscan friars renovated it further in 1555, as it had been neglected despite increased numbers of pilgrims. The Franciscans rebuilt the Aedicule, extending the structure to create an ante-chamber. After the renovation of 1555, control of the church oscillated between the Franciscans and the Orthodox, depending on which community could obtain a favorable firman from the Sublime Porte at a particular time, often through outright bribery, and violent clashes were not uncommon. There was no agreement about this question, although it was talked about it at the negotiations to the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. In 1767, weary of the squabbling, the Porte issued a firman that divided the church among the claimants. A fire severely damaged the structure again in 1808, causing the dome of the Rotunda to collapse and smashing the Edicule’s exterior decoration. The Rotunda and the Edicule’s exterior were rebuilt in 1809-1810 by architect Nikolaos Ch. Komnenos of Mytilene in the then current Ottoman Baroque style. The fire did not reach the interior of the Aedicule, and the marble decoration of the Tomb dates mainly to the 1555 restoration, although the interior of the ante-chamber, now known as the Chapel of the Angel, was partly re-built to a square ground-plan, in place of the previously semi-circular western end.
indulgences
removal of part or all of the punishment in purgatory for one’s sins
relics
In the RCC and Greek Orthodox Church, the body, a part of the body, or some personal memorial of a saint, martyr, or other sacred person, preserved as worthy of veneration in special reliquaries, sometimes used to consecrate altars. An antimension would be one of these woven into a cloth, again, mostly used to consecrate a church’s altar. Some examples of famous relics fought over in the Middle Ages and Renaissance between various conquering armies are the True Cross of Christ, the Shroud of Turin, and the Crown of Thorns.