the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
manorialism was an economic system that involved fiefs. It was between noblemen and serfs.
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
wedge formed by the curved part of a steel plow blade that turns the furrow
part of the agricultural revolution; farming technique that left one field out of three sallow for a year to replenish the soil
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
the family that ruled the Franks in Gaul from 751 to 987 in the Carolingian Dynasty. This began when Pepin was declared king. They lost power after the Treaty of Verdun.
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning
Holy Roman emperors
Emperors in Northern Italy and Germany, following split of Charlemagne’s empire, claimed title of emperor blending religious and classical ideads. They however failed to develop affective monarchies in Germany.
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord — in a military capacity
William the Conqueror
1027-1087 Norman king in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo-Saxon king, to become the first Norman king of england
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
English Legislative body
The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (p. 413)
pope who called for the First Crusade (1042-1099)
the pope who fought to establish the supremacy of the pope over the Church and the supremacy of the Church over the state (1020-1085)
the ceremony of installing a new monarch
(1079-1142) French philosopher and theologian
Bernard of Clairvaux
powerful monk who stressed the importance of a mystical union with God and believed reason was dangerous
influential scholastic thinker (1225-1274) wrote Summa Theologica, recognized faith and reason as overlapping realms of knowledge
This emphasized reason as well as faith and the interpretation of Christian doctrine.
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century. (p. 401)
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe