AP World History Ch. 20-22

AP World History Ch. 20-22

Crusaders
Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries that fought for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims
Gothic
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
Guilds
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806
Investiture
the ceremonial act of clothing someone in the insignia of an office, A ceremony in which a person formally receives the authority and symbols of an office.
Italian States
Stronger than other parts of Europe, able to discard and overcome feudalism easily. Wealthy and successful, resisted efforts of Kings, emperors, and nobles. Independent and included a walled urban center and surrounding countryside. Significance = trade never stopped. Never fell from Greco-Roman. Never monarch. (Venice, Milan, Florence, Papal States, Naples)
Pope Urban II
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Romanesque
a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between the Roman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century. (p. 408)
St. Thomas Aquinas
well-known mendicant saints in the Middle Ages. was brilliant and was taught by St. Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus). his most famous work is the Summa Thologiae. mystic and scholar
Three Estates
The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land
Three-field systems
System of agricultural cultivation by the 9th century in western Europe; included one-third in spring grains, one-third fallow. (Farmers could grow crops on two thirds of their land, not half)
Troubadours
wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women
Universities
Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities.
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.
Aztecs
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Cahokia
An ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
Chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.
Cuzco
capital of ancient Incan empire, located in present-day peru
Incas
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
Iroquois Peoples
1400 CE civilization: Owasco society large-scale agricultural societies, men in charge of hunting, fishing and war. Women in charge of villages and longhouses cultivated maize and beans, built wooden palisades as defense walls around communities
Maoris
early people of New Zealand who arrived about A.D. 950 -1150 and who make up ten percent of the population today
Maya
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.
Mexica
(also known as Aztecs): were a people of central Mexico; spoke Nahuatl language; built powerful Aztec empire that dominated Mesoamerica during the period from the mid-14th through the early 16th centuries.
Mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Polynesian Migration
The Polynesians migrated eastward to Hawaii by boat to spread culture, bring a caste system, establish military and establish religion from the 600’s-1300’s.
Hawaii
Where the Polynesians migrated eastward by boat to spread culture, bring a caste system, establish military and establish religion from the 600’s-1300’s.
Pre-Columbian
Period of North and South American history before the arrival of the Europeans in the late 15th century.
Pueblo and Navajo
Two societies in southwest North America. They topped rivers to irrigate maize crops and cultivated beans, squashes, and sunflowers, and also ate wild plants and small game. They began constructing permanent buildings around 700.
Quipu
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Toltecs
Nomadic peoples from beyond the northern frontier of sedentary agriculture in Mesoamerica; established capital at Tula after migration into central Mesoamerican plateau; strongly militaristic ethic, including cult of human sacrifice.
Tribute/Tributary
tax levied by a ruler; payment made by one nation to another in acknowledgment of submission; mark of respect (such as praise or gift); Ex. pay tribute to
Waru Waru
agricultural techniques of south america; combines raised beds with irrigation channels to prevent erosion
“little ice age”
Temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation.
Black Death
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.
Diaz
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
Fernando and Isabel
after marriage, become a very successful political and economic alliance for Spain. Complete reconquista, expand beyond the Iberian peninsula to Italy. Also funded Christopher Columbus’ trip to “China”
Horse Shoe/Collar
agriculture development that helped speed up the process of cultivating. The collar worked to help the horse pull the plow without choking.
Humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person’s capacity for self-realization through reason
Hundred Years’ War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Linear Perspective
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324), Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Ming
Chinese dynasty between 1368-1644. Economy flourished, Border Policy was good, but not well enough enforced, as they were taken over by the Manchu from the North in 1644.
Mandarins
Who: officials in Confucius style government. What: passed very difficult exams in order to hold leadership positions. They formed their own social class, called the Gentry. Many of them attended a university that had been built. Where: China, started in the state of Lu. When: 6th century BC on for 2000 years. Why: Led the Confucian government and were the only people, often, who could read and write.
Novgorad
City in the south west of Russian Empire.
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal’s colonial empire.
Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Silk Routes
Overland trade routes, often pionerred by nomads, that connected the civilized core areas of Eurasia and the Middle East.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Watermills
A mechanism that harnesses the energy in flowing water to grind grain or to power machinery. It was used in many parts of the world but was especially common in Europe from 1200 to 1900
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.