AP World History Ch. 26-28

Songhay
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
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Timbuktu
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.
Gao
Prosperous capital city of the kingdom of Songhai, had caravan trade routes.
Manioc
another staple of sedentary agriculturists in the Americas; principal crop in the lowlands of South America and the Caribbean islands.
Sunni Ali
created Sunni Dynasty; rule lasted 30 years; many military campaigns/victories; conquered Timbuktu and Djenne, which gave Songhai control of trade; focus on trading empire
Swahili Decline
-Vasco da Gama disrupted Mozambique and Mombasa (enroute India)
-Second voyage he demanded tribute from ruler of Kilwa
-1505 massive Portuguese naval expedition disrupted trade and dominated from Sofala -> Mombasa
-administrative centres in Mozambique and Malindi
Kingdom of Kongo
Basin of the Congo (Zaire) river, conglomeration of several village alliances, participated actively in trade networks, most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms, royal currency: cowries, ruled 14th-17th century until undermined by Portuguese slave traders
King Alfonso
King of the Congo who wrote a letter to the King of Portugal expressing concern that the slave trade was depopulating his country
Angola
(1575) Portuguese port established for expansion of slave trade. Angola grew and when Portuguese exerted further authority Queen Nzinga resisted. For 40 years, the warrior queen led her troops in battle studied European military tactics, and made alliances with Portugal’s rivals, but still never overcame Portugal.
Islamic Slave Trade
NOT extensive, took captives from east coast sent to: Arabia, Persia, Iraq, India and China for less than 1000 years used as soldiers and servants
Triangular Slave Trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the MIddle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Olaudah Equiano
(1745-1797) African who was sold into slavery and bought his way out-kidnapped as a boy (age 11) from his home he was sold into slavery and sold amongst slave traders many times-he served in the Seven Years’ War as a captain’s boy and was then sold to a slave trader where he went to the Caribbean-from there a white colonist bought him and he eventually bought his way out of slavery-he went to England to live and published a book about slavery and his experiences-his message was widespread and helped to inspire the abolition of slavery
African Diaspora
The separation of Africans from their homeland through centuries of forced removal to serve as slaves in the Americas and elsewhere.
Plantation Societies
slaves worked on plantations-tobacco, cotton and sugar were cash crops; slaves did not meekly accept being servile-slave revolts
Slave Revolts
seven major revolts in the Caribbean islands, which lead to slave codes giving whites absolute authority (1660’s). Led to harsh treatment of slaves, which was a model for plantation owners in North America.
Saint-Domingue/Haiti
(modern-day Haiti) French sugar colony that had the ONLY slave revolt that resulted in the abolition of slavery
Haitian Revolution
Toussaint l’Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world’s second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
Gullah
Unique language created by blacks that combined English with other African dialects.
West Indies
Islands between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, extending from Florida in North America to Venezuela in South America
Abolitionist
a reformer who favors abolishing slavery
Matteo Ricci
An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China
Jesuit Missionaries
group of people that converted people to catholocism during the reformation and is responsible for the catholicism of south america
Guangzhou
city in China that was the only port that Europeans could trade through, also known as Canton
Ming
Chinese dynasty between 1368-1644. Economy flourished, Border Policy was good, but not well enough enforced, as they were taken over by the Manchu from the North in 1644.
Great Wall
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
Manchus
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China’s imperial dynasties.
Qing
The Chinese government is ruled by this ethnically Manchurian dynasty during this period. They attempted to hold on to pre-industrial ways and resisted foreign involvement in their country (without success).
Forbidden City
a walled section of Beijing that encloses the palace that was formerly the residence of the emperor of China
Beijing
became the capital of China during the Ming Dynasty because of its centralized location
Footbinding
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women’s movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Yongle Encyclopedia
The second Ming emperor organized the preparation of vast collection of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature in an effort to preserve and glorify Chinese culture.
Neo-Confucianism
The Confucian response to Buddhism by taking Confucian and Buddhist beliefs and combining them into this. However, it is still very much Confucian in belief.
“self-ringing bells”
Jesuits piqued Chinese curiosity with what came to be known as “self-rining bells” – spring driven mechanical clocks that kept tolerably accurate time, chimed the hours, and sometimes even struck the quarter hours as well.
Edo
the capital and largest city of Japan
Daimyo
a japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Tokugawa
A powerful family in Japan that ruled as shoguns, 1603-1867, characterized by a samurai ruling class, urbanization, and the growth of a merchant class. Top-down approaches worked to solve environmental problems.
Shogun
the head of the military government of Japan in the era of the samurai
Nagasaki
Trading port, after Jesuit disputes, only the Dutch were allowed to reside here, and only for 2-3 months at a time
Samurai
class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land
Kyoto
The capital city of medieval Japan.
Kabuki
A popular type of Japanese drama combined with music and dance, it is the type of theatre in Japan(Played buy all male actors)
Bunraku
Japanese puppet theater
Dutch Studies
Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan.
School of National Learning
18th-century ideology that emphasized Japan’s unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influences.
Turkic Peoples
second-largest family of ethnic groups in Russia, settled most of Central Asia; conquered Turkey and the Mongols
Ottomans
Turkish people who converted to Islam, conquered Constantinople and changed the name to Istanbul
Mughals
muslim rulers over india, combined Hindu and Muslim, brought India to the peak of its political empire, had a single government with a common culture
Safavids
A shi’ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the persians, ottomans and arabs
Taj Mahal
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife
Devshirme
Ottoman policy of taking boys from Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
Janissaries
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
Suleyman the Magnificent
Ottoman Sultan (1512-20) expansion in Asia and Europe, helped Ottomans become a naval power, challegned Christian vessles througout the Mediterranian. 16th Century. The “lawgiver” who was so culturally aware yet exacted murder on two of his sons and a grandson in order to prevent civil war. Ottoman.
Shiite
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
Sunni
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Sufi
a Muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means
Shah
title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran
Vizier
a high official in a Muslim government (especially in the Ottoman Empire)
Babur
founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. (p. 536)
Steppe Traditions
These ancient traditions continued to influence rule in the Muslim empires. They encouraged military ventures, brought succession problems, and revered royal wives to the displeasure of Muslim subjects
Coffeehouses
These came to be known as new popular institutions of European social life during the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. Commonly, business, science, religion, and politics were all mentioned in caffeine fueled discussions in these places.
Goa
Indian city developed by the Portuguese as a major Indian Ocean base; developed an important Indo-European population.
“Divine Faith”
created by Akbar, basically a “mixture” of differnt aspects from different faiths into one faith.
Millet
in the ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims
Jizya
tax paid by Christians and Jews who lived in Muslim communities to allow them to continue to practice their own religion
Istanbul
Capital of the Ottoman Empire; named this after 1453 and the sack of Constantinople.
Aya Sofya
Hagia Sofia of Christian Constantinople converted to the Ottoman mosque of aya Sofya.
Printing Press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Gunpowder Empires
Muslim empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and the Mughals that employed cannonry and gunpowder to advance their military causes.
Ottoman Decline
Caused by internal strife, European rivals whittling away its territories and lack of adopting Western ways to late.
Sikhs/Sikhism
blended elements of both Islam and Hinduism
Cultural Conservatism
many Muslims being oblivious to European technological developments (scientific instruments and printing presses) and cultural developments (Enlightenment ideas)
Harem
living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
Zamindar
a local official in Mogul India who received a plot of farmland for temporary use in return for collecting taxes for the central government

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