AP World History Ch. 26 Terms

AP World History Ch. 26 Terms

Selim III
Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807
Mahmud II
Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents
Tanzimat reforms
Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876
Abdul Hamid
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908
Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
Organization of political agitators in opposition to rule of Abdul Harmid; also called Young Turks; desired to restore in 1876 the constitution
Murad
(1790- 1820) Head of the coalition of Mamluk rulers in Egypt; opposed Napoleonic invasion of Egypt and suffered devastating defeat; failure destroyed Mamluk government in Egyptand revealed vulnerability of Muslim core
Muhammad Ali
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)
Khedives
Descendents of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952
Suez Canal
Built accross Isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869; financed by European investors; with increasing indebtedness of khedives, permitted intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investments
Al- Afghani
Muslim thinker at the end of the19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology; recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry
Muhammad Abduh
Disciple of Al Afghani; Muslim thinker at the end of the 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology, recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry
Ahmad Orabi
Student of Muhammad Abduh; led revolt in 1882 against Turkish influence in Egyptian army; forced Khedive to call on British army for support
Khartoum
River town that was administrative center of Egyptian aythority in Sudan
Muhammad Achmad
Also know as mahdi; head of a sudanic sufi brotherhood; claimed descendent from prophet muhammad; proclaimed both egyptians and british as infidels; launched revolt to purge islam of impurities; took khartoum in 1883
Mahdi
In Sufi belief system, a promise deliverer; also a name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan
Khalifa Abdallahi
Successor of Muhammad Achmad as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defated by British General Kitchener in 1598
Nurhaci
Architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies; controlled most of Manchuria; adopted Chinese bureaucracy and court ceremonies in Manchuria, entered China and successfully captured Ming capital at Beijing
Banner Armies
Eight armies of the Manchu tribes identified by separate flags; created by Nurhaci in the early 17th century; utilized to defeat Ming emporer and established Qing dynasty
Qing
Machu dynasty that seized control of China in mid- 17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Veitnam and Burma to the south
Kangxi
Confucian scholar and Manch emperor of Qing dynasty from 1661 to 1722; established high degree of Sinification among the Manchus
Compradors
Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty; specialized in the import-export trade on Chian’s south coast; one of the major links between China and the outside world
Opium Wars
Fought between the British and Qing China beginning in 1839; fought to protect British trade in Opium; resulted in responding British victory, opening of Hong Kong as British port of trade
Taiping Rebellion
broke out in south china in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-christianized prophet; sought to overthrow qing dynasty and confucian basis of scholare entry
Hong Xiuquan
Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachers of Chinese elite
Self- strengthening Movement
Late 19th century movement in China to counter the challenge from the West; led by provincial leaders
Boxer Rebellion
Popular outburst in 1898 aimed at expelling foreigners from china; failed because of intervention of armies of western powers in china; defeat of Chinese enhanced control by Europeans and the power of provincial officials
Sun Yat- sen
Head of Revolutionary Alliance organzation that led 1911 revolt against Qing dynasy in China; briefly elected president in 1911, but yielded in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912; created Nationalist party of China (Guomingdang) in 1919; died in 1925
Puyi
Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while stilla small boy in 1912