Ap world history ch. 28 vocab

Sarajevo
Administrative center of the Bosnian province of Austrian Empire; assassination there of Arch-duke Ferdinand in 1914 started World War I
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
Western Front
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.
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Nicholas II
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Armenian Genocide
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.
Gallipoli
Peninsula south of Istanbul; site of decisive 1915 Turkish victory over Australian and New Zealand forces under British command During WWI
Eastern Front
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Adolf Hitler
(1889-1945) Nazi Party leader who established a totalitarian state in Germany. His policies took Germany into a devastating war in 1939 and led to the deaths of millions of Jews in the Holocaust. [302]
Georges Clemenceau
“tiger of France”, the French prime minister who wanted to ensure that Germany would never again threaten France; at the Paris Peace Conference.
David Lloyd George
Britain’s prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries’ staggering war losses
self-determination
The freedom of a people to decide under what form of government they wish to live
league of nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
National congress party
Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians; originally centered in cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; became political party in 1885; focus of nationalist movement in India; governed through most of postcolonial period.
B.G. Tilak
Believed that nationalism in India should be based on appelas to Hindu religiousity; worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; offended Muslims and other religious groups in India; first Indian Populist leader
Morley-Minto reforms
Provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-India legislative councils.
Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial number of elected Indians; passed in 1919.
Rowlatt Act
British law over Hindu people. Laws allowed the British to imprison any protestors against the British government.
Mohandas Gandhi
((1869-1948) Led sustained all-India campaign for independence from British Empire after World War I; stressed nonviolent but aggressive mass protest.
satyagraha
“Truth force,” a term used by Gandhi to describe peaceful boycotts, strikes, noncooperation, and mass demonstrations to promote Indian independence.
Lord Cromer
British proconsul in Khedival Egypt from 1833 to 1907 pushed for economic reforms that reduced but failed to eliminate the debts of the khedival regime.
effendi
Class of prosperous business and professional urban families in khedival Egypt; as a class generally favored Egyptian independence.
Dinshawai incident
Clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidentally shot by army officers hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.
Ataturk
Also known as Mustafa Kemal; leader of Turkish republic formed in 1923; reformed Turkish nation using Western models
Hussein
Sherif of Mecca from 1908 to 1917; used British promise of independence to convince Arabs to support Britain against the Turks in World War I; angered by Britain’s failure to keep promise; died 1931.
mandates
A nation governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations
Zionists
Jews that wanted to return to their homeland (Israel) and make it their independent homeland
Balfour Decleration
British minister Lord Balfour’s promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine issued in 1917
Leon Pinsker
(1821 – 1891) European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land.
Theodor Herzel
journalist from Austria, experienced anti-semitism in his homeland and during the Dreyfus Affair, founded Zionism and the First Zionist Congress
Alfred Dreyfus
French army officer of Jewish descent whose false imprisonment for treason in 1894 raised issues of anti-semitism that dominated French politics until his release in 1906 (1859-1935)
World Zionist Organization
Founded by Theodor Herzl to promote Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine to form a Zionist state. (p. 692)
Wafd party
Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa’d Zaghlul; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922.
Sa’d Zaghlul
Leader of Egyptian’s nationalist Ward party; their negotiations with British led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922
Marcus Garvey
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
W.E.B. Du Bois
African American who believed Blacks should fight segregation; pushed for higher education opportunities for Blacks to achieve economic independence; helped to found the NAACP
pan-African
the ideal that Africans should unite and Africa should not be ruled by Europeans, it should be run by Africans; unity of all Africans to embrace their culture and advocated an appreciation of African cultures, better education, and racial equality
negritude
Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.
Leopold Sedar Senghor
(1906 – 2001) One of the post-World War I writers of the negritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.

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