AP World History ch. 34-37

AP World History ch. 34-37

The first total war in world history was
World War I
Approximately how many combatants died in WWI?
15 million
The nationalistic aspirations of subject minorities was most threatening to a state such as
Austria-Hungary
What was NOT an important area of competition and conflict between England and Germany in the years leading up to WWI?
religious differences
The desire to ensure its “place in the sun” was a common complaint of
Germany
The French were deeply suspicious of German expansion because
the Franco-Prussian War
Plan XVII was
a french war plan based on a continuous series of offensive attacks
Gavrilo Princip was a member of a secret Serbian society known as
the Black Hand
The last tsar of Russia was
Nicholas II
“To make the world safe for democracy” was the motto of
Americans
The massive German assault on the western front in 1916 was
Verdun
The Somme was
an English assault in 1916 that gained a few thousand yards
The experience of Joseph Caillaux during WWI demonstrated that
governments resorted to the restriction of civil liberties
The main reason for the failure of the provisional government in Russia in 1917 was
its inability to satisfy popular demands
The most famous motto of the Russian Revolution was
“Peace, Land, Bread”
The Treaty of Brest Litovsk
ended Russia’s involvement in WWI
In the wake of WWI, Mustapha Kemal became president of
Turkey
The WWI poet who considered Horace’s line that, “It is sweet and proper to die for one’s country” to be an ‘old lie’ was
Wilfred Owen
What German African colonies were conquered by the Allies in WWI?
Togoland, the Cameroon’s, German Southwest Africa, and German East Africa
In 1914, Englands share of the worlds industrial output stood at
14%
The members of the triple alliance were
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
The military plan that called for an invasion of France through Belgium was called the
Schlieffen plan
The German offensive of 1914 was halted at
the Marne River
The western front in WWI was
a bloody staleamate
What was NOT an explanation of the expansion of the WWI to Asia, Africa, and the Pacific?
the german invasion of neutral Belgium was such a profound breech of international law
The twenty-one demands were issued by
Japan to China
The Japanese fought WWI due to their
their desire to acquire German colonies in Asia
The Battle of Gallipoli
led to the weakening of Britain’s imperial ties with Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
The February Revolution of 1917
led to the establishment of a reform-minded provisional government in Russia
The writer whose “Decline of the West” proposed that European society had entered the finial stage of its existence was
Oswald Spengler
In the years after WWI, the idea of progress
was attacked (especially science and technology)
John Maynard Keynes
discussed the end of laissez-faire capitalisam
The notion that space and time are relative to the person measuring them was first articulated in
Einstein’s theory of general relativity
The uncertainty principle is associated with
Heisenberg
The father of psychoanalysis was
Sigmund Freud
The spread of photography
led many painters to believe that the purpose of painting was not to mirror reality but to create it
The painter who was influenced by the “primitive” art of Tahiti was
Paul Gauguin
One of the biggest results of the artistic experimentation of the1920s and 1930s was that
generally accepted standards that distinguished between “good” and “bad” art disappeared
The term Bauhaus is associated with
architecture
By 1929, the price of a bushel of wheat was
at its lowest level in 400 years
On Black Thursday, October 24 1929
the U.S. stock market crashed
What was not part of Roosevelt’s New Deal?
give workers the right to organize and bargain collectively
At the lowest point in the GD, what percentage U.S. banks were out of business?
44%
In WWI, the eastern front was
ultimately a spectacular German success
What was NOT a characteristic of the new total war of WWI?
the extension of laissez-faire capitalism to its greatest freedom
What effect did WWI have on the status of women?
women in many countries received the right to vote in the years after the war
What is NOT an explanation of the expansion of WWI to Asia, Africa, and the Pacific
the German invasion of neutral Belgium was such a profound breech of international law
The key factor in the US’s decision to enter WWI was
Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare
One of the major problems of the Paris peace negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles was
Russia’s absence from the negotiations
Woodrow Wilson agreed to many harsh stipulations to the Treaty of Versailles because
in return for the creation of the League of Nations
The mandate system
angered the Arab world because it was little more than a glorified form of imperialism
Discoveries in physics added to the anxiety of the 20s and 30s because
they called into question the established notions of truth
According to Freud, the root of neurotic behavior was
a conflict between conscious and unconscious mental processes
Which of the following groups was not one of the new artistic movements of the 20th century?
impressionists
A troubling economic problem in the 1920s was the depressed state of agriculture caused by
overproduction and falling prices
During the Great Depression, most nations
practiced economic nationalism
In response to the GD, John Maynard Keynes
urged the gov to expand the money supply and undertake public works to provide jobs
The Russian Civil War that broke out after the revolution was between
the Reds (communists of Lenin) and the Whites (compromising a collection of anti-communist groups)
Lenins New Economic Policy of 1921
implemented free market reforms
The First Five Year Plan
was designed to transform the Soviet Union from an agricultural nation into an industrial one
What was NOT a step taken by Benito Mussolini to consolidate power?
instituting a communist system of government
The 1935 Nuremberg Laws
deprived German Jews of their citizenship
The Kristallnacht was
a Nazi arranged attack on thousands of Jewish stores
The leader of the fascist movement in Germany was
Adolf Hitler
Who believed in philosophy of promoting communism primarily in the Soviet Union rather than trying to export the revolution to other nations?
Trotsky
Approximately how many combatants died in WWI? (COMBATANTS)
15 million
In Jose Ortega y Gasset’s “Revolt of the Masses”, he points out that
the masses were destined to destroy the highest achievements of western society
The official goal of the Nazi regime toward Jews in the period before WWI was
to pressure them to emigrate
The most influential organization dedicated to the end of British rule in India was
the Indian National Congress
What was NOT one of the foundations of Gandhi’s philosophy?
heavy industrialization
Satyagraha was
Gandhi’s philosophy of passive resistance
Muhammad Ali Jinnah called for the creation of
Pakistan
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was
an Indian nationalist that garnered great support for the Indian independence movement
The former teacher and librarian that became the leader of the Chinese communist movement was
Mao Zedong
The May Fourth Movement
galvanized the Chinese against foreign interference
Mao Zedong’s main rival afer 1925 was
Jiang Jieshi
The Long March
greatly strengthened Mao Zedong’s leadership position
Manchukuo was the
Japanese puppet state in the former Manchuria
The Mukden incident
provided Japan with the excuse to send troops into Manchuria
Which African colony was NOT compelled by European colonial powers to participate in WWI?
Spanish colonies
One of the greatest proponents of Pan-Africanism was
Marcus Garvey
Which US policies are towards Latin America?
Dollar Diplomacy and Good Neighbor Policy
WWII began with
Japanese attacks on China
the height of Japanese atrocity in China was reached at
the Rape of Nanjing
The Tripartite Pact (AXIS Powers) brought together
Germany, Italy, and Japan
The German and Italian fascists used which war as an excuse to intervene and gain valuable military experience?
Spanish Civil War
The weakness of the League of Nations was revealed in its inability to take any substantial action in response to the Italian invasion of
Ethiopia
The highpoint in appeasement was
the Munich Conference
What leader proposed that the Munich Conference had ensured “peace in our time”?
Neville Chamberlain
The European part of WWII began with the
German invasion of Poland
German blitzkrieg refers to
lightening war
Operation Barbarossa was
the German plan for an invasion of the Soviet Union
Hitlers comment “You only have to kick in the door, and the whole rotten structure will come down” was a reference to?
the Soviet Union
“Asia for Asians” was the slogan of the
Japanese
The first large scale defeat for German forces in WWII was
Stalingrad
The US victory in the Pacific that turned the tide against the Japanese was
Midway
The US secret weapon in the Pacific campaign was
a code-breaking operation known as Magic
During the battle of Okinawa
over 100,000 Okinawa civilians died refusing surrender
The Vichy gov
were Nazi collaborators
The term “genocide” was coined to refer to the systematic killings of who?
Nazi Germany
The largest of the Nazi camps were
Auschwitz
80% of the comfort women in WWII were
American
The Indian Act of 1937
gave the institutions of self-governing state to India, but the British still exercised overall control
The GD aggravated the tense situation between Muslims and Hindus in India because
Muslims perceived that they were economically controlled by the Hindu majority of India
Maoism was
a political ideology that held that peasants were the foundation for a successful communist revolution
The GD led Japan to
turn toward a militarized government whose goal was the domination of east Asia
Pan-Africanism is an idea that advocated
the unification of all people of African descent around the globe into one African state
The Guomindang during WWII was
the resistance government of Korea vs Japans invasion of Korea
Hitler often spoke of the “November Crime” which was
signing of the 1918 armistice
The secret stipulation of the Nazi-Soviet Pact spelled out
the division of Poland
After the fall of France in 1940, the only country left to fight Germany was
Britain
In the Battle of Britain the Germans hoped to defeat the English
almost solely through air attacks led by the Luftwaffe
The Japanese goal in the bombing of Pearl Harbor was
to weaken the US and establish a defensive Japanese perimeter in the Pacific
They key to the Allied victories in Europe and Asia was
industrial capacity
The Normandy Invasion
led to the end of German resistance in western Europe
In the Battle of Okinawa the Japanese
introduced Kamikaze pilots
At the Wannsee Conference
the Nazis put in place the Finial Solution
Comfort women were
Koren and Chinese women forced into prostitution by the Japanese
About how many people perished during WWII?
60 million
The Marshall Plan was
a US financial plan to rebuild Europe and stop Soviet expansions
NATO was designed to
be a regional military alliance against Soviet agression
At a meeting of 50 nations at San Francisco in 1945
the United Nations Charter was signed
COMECON was
the Soviet alternative to the Marshall Plan