AP World History Ch.4

AP World History Ch.4

Raja
A chief of a group of nomadic Aryans. They later became kings of small villages in India
Caste System
A social class system in India made by the Aryans. It was so strong it was also used to uphold political order.
Jati
a subcaste that arose due to more professions and long-distance trade outside of India
Indra
A war god of the Aryan people. He was their primary deity since the Aryans were violent nomads who always waged war
varna
A main part of the caste system. It determines your social status in 4 main groups
sati
A ceremony in which a wife throws herself on her husbands funeral pyre. This process shows women were dependent on men and enforced a patriarchal society.
Vedas
Collections of orally transmitted works of the Aryans. It includes hymns and prayers praising Aryan gods
Upanishads
A book of religious works that later founded Hinduism
Upanishads
A book teaching of reincarnation, and explaining the Vedas. It gave reason for the caste system in India
Samsara
A doctrine of the Upanishads explaining the process of reincarnation
Lawbook of Manu
A book written in the name of the god of creation, Manu. It outlines proper social relationships and clearly says women should be subservient to men
Moksha
A dreamless eternal sleep that frees a soul from suffering. Occurs when you are reunited with Brahman and escape reincarnation
Karma
A doctrine that explains what or whom you are reincarnated as. If you led a good life you move up the social ladder. If you lead a bad life you move down the social ladder or become an animal
asceticism
a life style that rejects luxuries and calls for a simple life
soma
A drug taken at Aryan rituals that causes the sensations of being divine.
Harappan Society
A society on the Indus river that was very advanced. Their society fell due to earthquakes, climate change, and rising sea levels.
Mohenjo-Daro
A Harappan city that was very wealthy and was built according to a planned grid. They even developed sewage systems
Prakrit
The language used by Aryans for common everyday use
Sanskrit
The language used by Aryans in formality and rituals
republic
A society governed by representatives of citizens. This government was rarely used in India
Aryans
Indo Europeans who migrated to India and fought with the local peoples. Eventually they settled and built up cities
Brahman
The universal soul that everyone is a part of. Aryans goal is to obtain moksha and be reunited with this soul
Punjab
An area in Upper India that people could enter India through
Yoga
A method of intense meditation that is a requirement to obtain moksha.