AP World History ch.6 vocab

AP World History ch.6 vocab

Bedouin
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.. Muhammed’s tribe.
Shaykhs
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives, and many children
Mecca
City located in the mountainous region along the Red Sea in the Arabian peninsula; founded by Umayyad clan of Quarysh; place where the Ka’ba is located.
Medina
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins. Where Muhammed fled after he was kicked out of Mecca.
Umayyad
Clan of Quarysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca. Were later able to establish a dynasty as rulers of Islam.
Ka’ba
Most revered religious shrine in pre-islamic Arabia, Located in Mecca, focus ofobligatory truce among bedouin tribes.
Quaran
Recitations of revelations received by Muhammed. Its the holy book of Islam.
Umma
Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create a degree of political unity.
Zakat
Tax for charity that is obligatory for all muslims.
Five Pillars
1. There is only one god, Allah
2. You must pray five times a day facing Mecca
3. You must pay the government Zakat
4. You must fast for Ramadan
5. You must make a Pilgrimage to Mecca sometime during your life.
Caliph
The political and religious successor of Muhammed
Ali
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammed; one of the orthodox Caliphs; focus for Shi’is
Abu Bakr
The first caliph, Muhammed’s father-in-law.
Ridda Wars
Wars that followed Muhammed’s death in 632; resulted in the defeat of rival prophets and some larger clans. Restored unity to Islam.
Jihad
Islamic holy war
Uthman
Third caliph and member of the Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning for Egypt. HIs death set of a civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan.
Siffin
War fought between Ali and Muwaiya over who should be Caliph
Mu’awiya
Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following the civil war with Ali
Sunnis
Political and theological division within Islam. Followers of the Umayyads.
Shi’is
Political and theological division within Islam. Followers of Ali.
Karbala
Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali. Marked the beginning of Shi’i resistance to Umayyad caliphate.
Mawali
Non-Arab converts to Islam
Jizya
Head tax payed by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories.
Dhimmis
Literally “people of the book” applied as an inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories.
Abbasids
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam.
Wazir
Chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of the Empire.
Ayan
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule.