AP World History chap 1-2

AP World History chap 1-2

History
study of past events and changes in the development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices
Culture
socially transmitted patterns of actions and expressions. Ex: arts, beliefs, knowledge, and technology
Civilization
An ambiguous term often used to denote more complex societies but sometimes used by anthropologists to describe any group of people sharing a set of cultural traits
Technology
Normally refers to the tools and processes by which humans manipulate the physical world.
The Great Ice Age
A.K.A-Pleistocene epoch. Occurred between 2 million and 11,000 years ago. As a result of the climate shifts, large numbers of new species evolved during this era.
Stone Age
Period characterized by the production of tools and other nonmetallic substances. The first recognizable cultural activity appeared.
Paleolithic
Period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans
Lascaux
a cave in southwestern France that contains Paleolithic paintings
Foragers
People who support themselves by hunting and gathering
Neolithic
Period of Stone Age associated with the Agricultural Revolutions
Catal Huyuk
One of first true cities in history, created in the Neolithic Era in 6500 to 5500 BC, from which were created agriculture, trading, temples, housing, and religions
The Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent, nicknamed “The Cradle of Civilization” for the fact the first civilizations started there, is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia
Agricultural Revolutions
Change from food gathering to food production that occurred between 8000 and 2000 B.C.E.
Anthropomorphic Gods
Gods who possess human forms and characteristics
Megaliths
structures and complexes of very large stones constructed for ceremonial and religious purposes
Mesopotamia
A region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies. In the Bronze Age this area included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires, In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires.
Sumerians
People living in Mesopotamia at the start of the period
Lugal
another name for a king in Ancient Mesopotamia
Babylon
Largest and most important city in Mesopotamia
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon who wrote his own Law Code named after him
Hammurabi’s law code
Provided judges with a lengthy set of examples illustrating the principles to be used in deciding cases. Some examples use severe punishments to compensate for crimes.
Semitic
Family of languages spoken in West Asia and northern Africa, including Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician
City-state
Self-governing urban centers controlling agricultural territories
Scribe
trained professionals who applied their skills of reading and writing to tasks of administration
Ziggurat
Multistory, mud-brick, pyramid-shaped tower approached by ramps and stairs
Amulet
small charms meant to protect the bearer from evil
Cuneiform
system of writing where wedge-shaped symbols represent words or syllables. Served to express the Akkadian language of the Mesopotamian Semites as well as other languages.
Bronze
Stronger metal made of an alloy of copper with tin or arsenic
Dynasty
a succession of rulers from the same family or group
Pharaoh
central figure in the Egyptian state
Menes
Egyptian ruler, he unified the kingdoms of upper and lower Egypt and built the new capital city of Memphis
Ma’at
divinely authorized order of the universe
Pyramid/ The Great Pyramid
large, triangular stone monument used as a burial place for a king; Between 2550 and 2490 BCE the pharoahs Khufu and Khefren erected huge pyramids at Giza.
Upper Egypt/ Lower Egypt
Upper in the south, lower in the north
The Old kingdom/ Middle Kingdom/ New Kingdom
These are the three dividing periods of Egypt based on chaos and politics; provided a good system to separate the history of Egypt.
Nubia
Area south of Egypt; the kingdom of Kush in Nubia invaded and dominated Egypt from 750 to 664 B.C.E.
Meroe
Capital of a flourishing kingdom in southern Nubia from the fourth century B.C.E. to the fourth century C.E.
Kush
An Egyptian name for Nubia, the region alongside The Nile River south of Egypt.
Nile Delta
The most fertile area of land in Egypt located end of the Nile River where it empties into the Mediterranean Sea
Memphis
capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near head of Nile Delta
Thebes
capital city of Egypt during the Middle and New Kingdoms
Hieroglyphics
picture symbols that stand for words, syllables, or individual sounds
Rosetta Stone
Stone that contained carved messages in hieroglyphics, Greek and demotic. Led to deciphering of hieroglyphics.
Papyrus
reed that grows along the Nile and is used as writing material
Mummy/Mummification
body preserved by chemical processes or special natural circumstances; the egyptians obsession with the afterlife produced concerns about the physical condition of the dead body.
Harrapa and Mohenjo-daro
the largest Indus River civilizations, organized, sewage systems, public wells
Loess
Yellowish-brown dust that makes a fertile soil
Huang He
also called the Yellow River; flows 2,900 miles across northern China carrying rice yellow silt; early Chinese civilizations arose on its valley
Shang Dynasty
First dynasty of China that is on written records (1750-1045 B.C.) the form of writing developed in this era is still used today. Originated around yellow river.
Anyang
ancient city in northern China built during the Shang dynasty, it was China’s first capital
Divination
Techniques for ascertaining the future or the will of the gods by interpreting natural phenomena such as, in early China, the cracks on oracle bones or, in ancient Greece, the flight of birds through sectors of the sky.
Oracle Bones
In ancient China, they were pieces of bone or turtle shell used by Shang priests for divination. Oracle bones are the oldest example of Chinese writing.
Barbarians
A person belonging to a tribe or group that is considered uncivilized; the nomadic peoples who occupied the desert regions to the north and west of shang dynasty were called barbarians by chinese sources
Zhou Dynasty
Overtook Shang in north China and created the Mandate of Heaven (1045-221 B.C.)
Warring States Period
the period from 475 BC until the unification of China(221 BC) under the Qin dynasty, characterized by lack of centralized government in China. It followed the Zhou dynasty.
Mandate of Heaven
Validated the institution of the monarchy by connecting politics and religion
Confucius
Chinese philosopher, Kongzi, who introduced the idea of Confucianism
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Mencius
Chinese philosopher, who studied Confucianism. He later refined many of the ideas and spread them across China. Also known as Mengzi.
Laozi
the “Old Master” who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism)
Daoism
Urged withdrawal from the empty formalities, rigid hierarchy, and distractions of Chinese society
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
yin/yang
Nature of male and female roles in the natural order
Celts
People sharing common linguistic and cultural features that originated in Central Europe in the first half of the first millennium
Druids
The class of religious experts who conducted rituals and preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic people
Olmec Civilization
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers and monumental construction
Chavin
The first major urban civilization in South America (900-2500 B.C.E.) its capita was located in the Andes mountains.
llama
A hoofed animal indigenous to the Andes Mountains in South America. First domesticated animal of the americas.
Egyptian new kingdom
-1500BCE-1000BCE ” Expansion Period”
Egypt expanded borders through military conquest.
Pharaohs buried in the valley of kings.
-The new kingdom was the most glorious period in ancient egyptian history.
Pictograms
A pictorial symbol or sign representing an object or concept
-only small, educated elites had time to master this system.
Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica is a region of great geographic and climate diversity. The early and great civilizations of the olmec and chavin were in Mesoamerica.