AP World History Chap. 18

AP World History Chap. 18

Bourgeoisie
terms that describe a historical range of socio-economic classes. In the Western world, between the late 18th century and the present, the bourgeoisie are a social class characterized by their ownership of capital, and their related culture
Factory System
intensification of all of the processes of production at a single sit during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increase discipline
Mass Production of Single Natural Resources
the move by some dependent cultures to create a mass production of agricultural products so that they can be exchanged for manufactured goods from core nations
Agriculturally Based Economies
the traditional economies based on human labor systems and small scale production located in non-industrialized locations
Adam Smith
the notion that economies are moved by an entity or “invisible hand” that creates natural boom and bust-cycles
Gold Standard
a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. meaning each cash note is backed by an amount of gold printed on the cash note
United Fruit Company
an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas) grown on Third-World plantation and sold in the U.S. and Europe
Transatlantic Telegraph Cable
the first cable used for telegraph communications laid across the floor of the Atlantic Ocean in 1866. commonly referred to as the “Transatlantic Tappy-Stuff Wire”
Marxism
an economic and sociopolitical worldwide view and method of socioeconomic inquiry that centers upon a materialists interpretation of history, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis and critique of the development of capitalism
Mass Leisure Culture
an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time such as taking vacations, going on trips, and attending sporting events
Industrial Revolution
Series of changes in economy of Western nations between 1740 and into the 20th century that replaced animal labor with machine labor
State Pension
an arrangement for the state to provide people with an income when they are no longer earning a regular income from employment
Monroe Doctrine
a policy of the United States introduced in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention
Crimean War
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industiralize.
Mexican Revolution
(1910 – 1920) A political revolution that removed dictator Porfirio Diaz, and hoped to institute democratic reforms. While a constitution was written in 1917, it was many more years until true change occurred.
Proletariat
Karl Marx’s term for the working class in a capitalist society who lack ownership of the means of production