AP World History Chapter 1

Slash and Burn Agriculture
A system of cultivation typical of shifting cultivators; forest floors cleared by fire are then planted
Bands
a level of social organization normally consisting of 20 or 30 people; nomadic hunters and gatherers; labor divided on a gender basis
Catal Huyuk
Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in mondern southern Turkey; was larger in population than Jericho, had greater degree of social strification
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Civilization
societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of non farming elites, as well as merchant and manufactoring groups
Coneiform
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets
Nomad
Cattle and sheep herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly reffered to as “barbarian” by civilized societies
Mesopotamia
Literally “between the rivers”; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys
Sumerians
People who migrated into mesopotamia c. 4000 B.C.E.; created first civilization within region; organized area into city states
Ziggurats
Massive towers usually associated with mesopotamian temple complexes
City-State
A form of political organization typical of mesopotamian civilizations; consisted of agricultural lands ruled by an urban based king
Babylonian
extended their own empire and thus helped bring civilization to other parts of the Middle East; unified mesopotamia
Hammurabi
The most important ruler of the Babylonian empire; responsible for Condification of law
Pharaoh
Title of kings of ancient Egypt
Pyramids
Monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharohs
Kush
An African State that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 1000 BCE; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
Indus River Valley
River sources in Himalayas to mouth in Arabian Sea; location of the Harappan Civilization
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
Major urban complexes of Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern
Huangne (Yellow River)
Site of development of sedentary agriculture in china
Ideographs
Pictographic characters grouped together to create nerw concepts typical of Chinese writing
Shang
First Chinese dynaty for which archeological evidence exists; capital located in Ordos bulge of the Huangne; flourished 1600 to 1046 BCE
Phoenicians
Sea faring civilization located on the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean
Monotheism
The exclusive worship of a single god; introduced by the Jews into western civilization

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