AP World History Chapter 14 (Strayer)

The Great Dying
1450-1750 : The massive epidemic caused by old world diseases after Columbian exchange. It killed ninety percent of natives..Long isolation from the afro-Eurasian world and the lack of most domesticated animals meant the absence of acquired immunities to Old World diseases, such as smallpox, measles, typhus, influenza, malaria and yellow fever
Columbian Exchange
1450-1750 : The exchange of plants, animals, culture and diseases between Europe and the Americans from the first contact through exploration and colonization. An acute labor shortage was created by the great dying in turn making room for immigrant new comers, both colonizing Europeans and enslaving Africans
Peninsulares
1450-1750 : Descendants of the original conquistadores sought to protect their privileges against immigrant newcomers; Spaniards born in the Americas (creoles) resented the pretension to superiority of those born in Spain (?)… These people came to Latin America and were of the highest social class
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Mestizo
1450 – 1750 : The most distinctive feature of these new colonial societies in mexico and peru was their emergence. they were a mixed – race, population, initially the product of unions between Spanish men and indian women
Mulattoes
1450-1750 : The product of Portuguese-African unions predominated, but as many as forty separate and named groups, each indicating a different racial mixture, emerged in colonial brazil. in colonial latin America Spanish/Africans who were denied all political, economic and social rights due to their mixed heritage of African and Europeans
Plantation Complex
1450-1750 : Colonies, such as those in south Africa, new Zealand, Algeria, Kenya and Hawaii where minority European populations lived among a majority of indigenous people — based upon African slavery beyond the Caribbean ad brazil to encompass the southern colonies of British North America where tobacco, cotton, rice and indigo where major crops where
Settler Colonies
1450-1750 : Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rater than simply spending relatively small numbers to exploit the religion. Particularly noteworthy in the case of the British colonies in North America
Siberia
1450-1750 : A region of central and eastern Russia stretching from rural mountains to the pacific ocean (The Bearing Sea). It is known for it’s mineral resources and political exile.
Yasak
1450-1750 : Also known as a tribute paid in cash or in kind that Russian rulers demanded from the Native peoples of Siberia mainly for pelts
Quing Dynasty Empire
1450-1750 : The ruling dynasty of China throughout 1644 to 1912. This is the dynasty that helped expand the dynasty North by enlarging the territorial size of the country. This dynasty was originally from Manchuria. No assimilating foreigners there is too much interest in expansion and court of colonial affairs.
Mughal Empire
1450-1750 : A muslim state ruling from India in 1529 through 1857. It was a muslim minority ruling over a Hindu majority
Akbar
1450-1750 : Mugal Indias most famous emperor, marring several of their princesses but he did not require them to convert to Islam. He clearly recognized this fundamental reality and acted deliberately to accommodate the Hindu majority. He reigned in the second half of the 1500’s (1556-1605). He is also a descendant of Timur. He consolidated power over Northern India and is religiously tolerant. He was the Patron of Arts including large mural paintings.
Aurangzeb
1450-1750 : A strain of Muslim thinking found a champion in the emperor who reversed Akbar’s policy of accommodation and sought to impose Islamic supremacy. He was one of the Mughal emperors in India and was also the great grandson of Akbar ” The Great”. Under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death.
Ottoman Empire
1450-1750 : Was the creation of Turkic warrior groups; the Islamic state was founded by Osman in Northwest Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire the ottoman empire was based in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the middle east, North Africa and Balkans with eastern Europe. Then fell after world war I.
Constantinople (1453)
1450-1750 : The Ottoman Turks advanced from the West to the East in the 1300’s, they initially skipped over Constantinople. The then returned in 1453 to take down the city, and with it the Byzantine empire. This marked the end of the Christian Byzantine
Devshirme
1450-1750 : (the collecting or the gathering) was the ottoman policy of taking boys from conquered Christian people to be trained as Muslim soldiers served as “Janissaries” for imperial institutions such as the palace, scribes, religious ways and military’s.

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