AP World History Chapter 14

Muhammad
definition: the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
significance: founder of Islam, a prominent religion
Abu Bakr
definition: companion of 1st Muslim leader after Muhammad, regarded by Sunni’s as the 1st caliph and rightful successor
significance: First sucessor to Muhammad, set the status-quo for Caliphs
Ali
definition: the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
significance:
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Abu al-Abbas
definition: Leader of rebellion in Persia that led to the downfall of the Umayyad
significance: led to the downfall of the Umayyad
Harun al-Rashid
definition: fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph in Iraq
significance: Brought the high point of the Abbasid empire, supporting weath
Al-Ghazali
definition: Islamic theologian who struggled to fuse Greek and Koranic traditions
significance:
Omar Khayyam
definition: Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald’s translation (1050-1123)
significance: Demonstrated Persian influence during the Abbasid empire.
Ibn Rushd
definition: tried to blend Aristotle’s and Plato’s views with those of Islam- argued that Greek philosophy had the same goal: to find the truth.
significance: demonstrated classical influence
Islam
definition: the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
significance: Prominent religion, helped bring unity to large stretches of land
Muslim
definition: a believer or follower of Islam
significance: Spread Islamic religion
Dar al-Islam
definition: religious conceptualization of the world as belonging either to Muslim or non-Muslim territory, exists within Islam
significance: Allowed for expeditions from other countries to be facilitated
Mecca
definition: City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion
significance: Important location in Islam
Quran (Koran)
definition: the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
significance: Basis of the Islamic faith
Hadith
definition: a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions
significance: Established a principle based on Muhammad’s life
Medina
definition: a city in western Saudi Arabia to where Muhammad had fled
significance: Islamic significance, location where Muhammad was buried, first Mosque
Hijra
definition: The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
significance: Founded Islam
Umma
definition: the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
significance: Provided peace along these lands
Seal of the Prophets
definition: name recognizing Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet
significance: Solidified Muhammad’s role as a great prophet
Kaaba
definition: a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
significance: Sacred Muslim site, many pray at the Kaaba several times a day
Five Pillars of Islam
definition: the five basic acts of worship that are central to Islam (Faith, Prayer, Fasting, Alms, Pilgrimage)
significance: Foundation of Islam, reinforced by Muhammad
Sharia
definition: the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Muhammed
significance: Sharia is still used today, prohibits actions according to Islam, demonstrates Muhammad’s influences
Caliph
definition: the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
significance: Center of several debates, the leader of an expansive empire
Umayyad
definition: the dynasty caliphs whose capital was Damascus, one of the largest empires ever
significance: Spanned large areas of land that facilitated trade and brought unity
Shia
definition: the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
significance: source of many debates, one of the largest Islamic denominations
Abbasid
definition: The dynasty that came after the Umayyads, devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts
significance: ushered in an era of flourishing of the dar al-Islam
Ulama
definition: Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology
significance: Ensured observance of Islamic traditions
Qadis
definition: Muslim judges who carried out the judicial functions of the state
significance: Ensured observance of Islamic traditions
Sultan
definition: the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
significance: true leaders of dar al-Islam, set up a puppet state
Caravanserai
definition: an inn in some Eastern countries with a large courtyard that provides accommodation for caravans
significance: facilitated trade by making it easier
Al-Andalus
definition: Arabic name given to a nation in the parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims
significance: Demonstrated the expansive realm of Islam
Sufis
definition: a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
significance: most successful missionaries, helped spread
Hajj
definition: the fifth pillar of Islam, a pilgrimage to Mecca
significance: A large part of a Muslim’s life, symbol of religious unity

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