AP World History Chapter 15

AP World History Chapter 15

Xuanzang
definition: Buddhist monk that illegally visited India; popularized Buddhism in China (629 C.E.)
significance: Popularized Buddhism in China
Huang Chao
definition: military commander that led an uprising of Eastern China for almost a decade (875-884) that helped to bring the Tang to a close
significance: Weakened the Tang empire, leading to its demise
Du Fu
definition: a famous chinese poet who wrote “spring landscape” and his poems were base on the suffering of his own life
significance: Wrote about several changes in Chinese history
Li Bo
definition: Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
significance: Wrote about Chinese social life during the Song dynasty
Zhu Xi
definition: (1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China
significance: demonstrated the influence of Buddhism
Sui
definition: a dynasty (581 to 618) that rebuilt the Great Wall and began canal building, restored centralized rule after war
Grand Canal
definition: an inland waterway 1000 miles long in eastern China built by the Sui dynsaty
significance: facilitated trade in China from north to south
Tang
definition: the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907, restored centralized rule after war
Chang’an
definition: ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi’an
Equal field system
definition: inheritance system where 1/5 of the land when to the peasant’s descendants and the rest went to the government
Bureaucracy of merit
definition: civil service examinations; based on Confucian education – no longer decided by family lineage
significance: Helped to strengthen the imperial government
Middle Kingdom
definition: refers to China because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and Earth
significance: rationalized the reason as to why the Chinese ruled over so many
Uighurs
definition: A group of Turkic-speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia and Central Asia.
Song
definition: the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279
significance: flourished empire of China
Khitan
definition: Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture
significance: brought the end of the Song dynasty
Jurchen
definition: nomadic people that conquered Khitan, overran northern China, and captured the Song capital
Foot binding
definition: practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller
significance: demonstrated Chinese patriarchal society
Dunhuang
definition: A Chinese city on the edge of Taklimaken desert; all silk road routes reached this point
significance: Location of a prominent Buddhist monastery, promoted Buddhism
Chan Buddhism
definition: Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
significance: brought Buddhism into China
Neo-Confucianism
definition: term that describesthe resurgence of Confusianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the Tang dynasty
significance: demonstrated Buddhist influences
Silla
definition: Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies
significance: Stopped Chinese rule in China, helped extend Chinese influence
Vietnam
definition: a southern state below China
significance: had fast-ripening Rice, allowed much more food to be produced
Nara Japan
definition: Japanese period (710-794) centered around city of Nara, that was the highest point of Chinese influence
significance: demonstrated CHinese influence
Heian period
definition: (794 – 1100) move the capital to Heian; 300 years of developing a new culture; growth of large estates
significance: moved away from chinese culutre, began to become more distinct
Tale of Genji
definition: story of Prince Genji and his lovers, written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu at end of 11th century, world’s first full novel
significance: first novel
Minamoto
definition: Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan
significance: Brought in the medieval period of Japan
Shogun
definition: a hereditary military dictator of Japan
significance: established in place of an emperor, fractioned imperial rule
Kamakura
definition: Yorimoto’s capital during his shogunate, destroyed in 1331
significance: head of the true power of Japan
Muromachi
definition: later medieval period of Japan that ran from 1336 – 1573 CE; during the two periods, Japan developed a decentralized political order
significance: Japan developed a decentralized political order
Samurai
definition: a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
significance: leaders of the military emperor
Bushido
definition: traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
significance: provided more time for the Samurai to focus on bettering themselves
Seppuku
definition: Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor
significance: demonstrated the Samurai’s dedication to his profession