AP World History Chapter 19 Study Guide

encomienda
grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors & settlers in Mesoamerica & South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies
audiencia
royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were 10 in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates
Bartolome de las Casas
Dominican friar; a conquistador turned priest; initiated the struggle for justice of American Indians
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Hernan Cortes
led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan
Francisco Pizarro
led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535. by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now US in search of mythical cities of gold
ecomendero
the holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor; responsible for their integration into the church
Treaty of Tordesillas
signed in 1494 between Castile & Portugal; clarified spheres of influence & rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil & all newly-discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain
Huancavelica
location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosi
consulado
merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America & handled much of the silver received in return
letrados
university-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative & administrative functions
Paulistas
backwoodsmen from Sao Paulo in Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century
War of the Spanish Succession
resulted from Bourbon family’s succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by treat of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English & French
Socledad de Castas
American social system based on racial origins; Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Native Americans at bottom, mixed races in middle
Jose de Galvez
Spanish minister of the west Indies & chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants for local government
Caribbean
1st area of Spanish exploration & settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here
Casa de Contratacion
Spanish board of trade operated out of Seville; regulated commerce with New World; supplied colonial provisions
Rio de Janeiro
Brazilian port; close to mines of Minas Gerais; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763
Mexico City
capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan
Pedro de Valdivia
Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile & established city of Santiago in 1541
Potosi
mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); largest of New World silver mines; produced 80% of all Peruvian silver
haciendas
rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth & power for local aristocracy
Creoles
whites born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies; ranked just beneath peninsulares
galleons
large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bulleon
Recopilacion
body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies
Minas Gerais
region of Brazil located in mountainous interior where gold strikes were discovered in 1695; became location for gold rush
peninsulares
people living in New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain
Marquis of Pombal
prime minister of Portugal from 1755-1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy
Tupac Amaru
Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru;supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution
Hispaniola
1st island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on 2nd voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World
captaincies
strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the colony
Comunero Revolt
one of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Columbia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels
New Spain
Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica; included most of central Mexico; based on imperial system of Aztecs
mita
labor extracted for lands assigned to the state & the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control
1498
Treaty of Tordesillas
1500
Cabral lands in Brazil
1533
Pizarro conquers Cuzco
1695
gold discovered in Brazil
1713
Bourbons recognized as rulers in Spain
1781
Comunero, Tupac Amaru Revolts
Describe the characteristics of Iberian society
Heavily urban, peasants living in small towns & villages; emphasis on nobles, European commoners became the new nobilitiy; patriarchal family & slave holding traditions
How was the commercial experience of the Portuguese extended to the Americas
The Portuguese experience in Africa & their involvement in slave trading was extended to the Americas
Where in the Americas did the Spanish create the models that were applied throughout their possessions in the New World
Caribbean
What is Hispaniola
an island in which Columbus established a 2nd colony on his return trip to the New World in 1493
How did the Caribbean cities differ from those of Europe
Caribbean cities suffered from hurricanes; were laid out according to a grid plan, with town hall, major church, governor’s palace in central plaza; & there was resistance from natives
What are encomiendas
grants of Indians to individual Spaniards
Who are the Taino
Indians supplying agricultural labor for the Spanish & Caribbean
Describe Bartolome de las Casas & Hernan Cortes
Bartolome de las Casas: Dominican friar; a conquistador turned priest; initiated the struggle for justice of American Indians
Hernan Cortes: led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan
Describe the characteristics of the conquistadors
Hoping to improve selves; serve God by conquering heathen; soldiers, gentlemen, some women; saw selves as new nobility
What advantage did the Spanish have over the Indians
They possessed horses, firearms, & steel weaponry
What caused the Indian population to decline so much
epidemic disease
What happened with European livestock in the Americas
it rapidly increased
What Indian institution did the Spanish retain
the traditional Indian nobility, supported by Spanish authority, as middle men between the tax & labor demands of the new rulers
Why were the encomiendas discontinued by the 1620s
Spanish crown didn’t want a new nobility to rise in the New World & decline of Native American population made it less attractive
What is the mita
name of the forced labor system that the Spanish government replaced the encomienda with
What was the nature of the economy of the Spanish Americas
Economy depended on agriculture & mining
What is Potosi
greatest silver mine in Spanish America; located in upper Peru
Why was mercury so important
added in silver production; used to extract silver
What caused silver production to grow after 1850
due to the use of almagation
Describe agricultural system of the Spanish Americas
agriculture dominated Spain’s economy
Describe the Spanish commercial system
the merchant guild in Seville had virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America & handled much of the silver received in return until the 18th century
What are galleons
large heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion
How did American galleon negatively affect the Spanish economy
the arrival of American treasure contributed to a sharp rise in prices & a general inflation
The Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty that divided the world into a Castile sphere of influence & a Portuguese sphere of influence
What group of people were most critical to the bureaucratic administration of the Spanish colony
letrados; university-trained lawyers from Spain
Recopilacion? Audiencias
Recopilacion: law code that became the basis of law in the Indies around 1681
Audiencias: name of superior courts that controlled the 10 judicial divisions of each New Spanish & Portuguese viceroyalty
What did the Catholic Church introduce in the colonies
churches & monasteries. religious books: history, poetry, philosophy, law, & language; universities, broke churches, missions in outlying areas
What colony was the 1st major plantation zone
Brazil
Pedro Alvares Cabral
led the 1st landfall in the colony of Brazil that took place in 1500
What was the slave population in Brazil in 1700
took up 50% of Brazil’s population
Where was the Brazilian plantation model emulated
Caribbean colonies
What was the primary difference between the Spanish & Portuguese empires
Spanish: remained mainly American, except for Philippines
Portuguese: included colonies & outposts all around the world (Asia, Africa, & Brazil)
What conditions undercut the position of the discovery of gold in Brazil
competition with Dutch, England, & French
Orinoco? Rio de Janeiro?
Orinoco: river in South America
Rio de Janeiro: port associated with the discovery of gold in Brazil & subsequently became capital of the colony
What was the negative impact of the discovery of gold in Brazil
didn’t establish an internal industry, became economically dependent on England
What was the basis of the social hierarchy that developed in the Americas
racial origins
Bourbon Reforms
reforms led by the Spanish Bourbons that recast the colonial administration of the Americas in the 18th century
Jose de Galvez? Marquis of Pombal
Jose de Galvez: Spanish minister of the west Indies & chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants for local government
Marquis of Pombal: prime minister of Portugal from 1755-1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy
Impact of 18th century reforms by mid 18th century
Brazil remained as profoundly based on slavery in the late 18th century as it had ever been
State of Portugal & Spanish colonies by mid 18th century
rapid growth in population & produce capacity
Tupac Amaru(not Tupac Shakur)
leader of the Indian Revolution in Peru in 1781
Why did the Portugal & Spanish revolutions fail?
sharp social & ethnic divisions within the colonies acted as a barrier to cooperation for common goals & tended to undercut revolutionary movements

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