AP World History Chapter 19

Factors Contributed to the Recovery of Europe
Local Rulers organized powerful states and agriculture bloomed.
Otto
German King who was crowned emperor by John XII. Began the Holy Roman Empire.
Investiture Contest
Controversy over the appointment of church officials.
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Frederick Barbarossa
Emperor who reigned from 1152 to 1190. Known as the red beard. He wished to control Lombardy but could not take it due to the popes.
Capetians
Dynasty who ruled France and gained full power by the early fourteenth century. Founded by Hugh Capet.
William the Conqueror
Norman Duke who conquered England in 1066.
Italy and Spain’s Political Arrangement
They were split into city states.
Clearing of Land, New Crops, Crop Rotation, New Tools, and Population Growth
Contributed to the increase of agricultural production
Paris, London, Toledo
Where urbanization occurred heavily.
Hanseatic League
Well developed trade network including the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.
Three Estates
Social Classes, Those who pray, those who work, and those who fight.
Chivalry
Code by which Knights lived their life
Troubadours
Traveling poets, minstrels, and entertainers whom aristocratic women patronized.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
1122-1204, a woman who supported romantic poets and entertainers. Encouraged good manners, refinement, and romantic love.
Guilds
Groups of craftsmen who regulated production and sale of goods.
Roles of Women
Chores, weaving, and caring for domestic animals.
Women’s Professions
In urban environments they could become butchers, bakers, candle makers, fishmongers, shoemakers, gem smiths, innkeepers, launderers, money changers, merchants, and occasionally pharmacists and physicians.
Aristotle
Very important Greek thinker during the middle ages
Saint
Human being who has led an exemplary live and whom god holds in high esteem.
Waldensians
Group who saw the Roman Catholic clergy as immoral and corrupt. Advocated modest and simple lives.
Cathars
Adopted teachings that the world was the battleground of a constant struggle of good v.s. evil.
Vinland
Newfoundland in Canada. Named Vinland due to the grapes found there. Discovered by the Vikings.
Teutonic Knights
Pledged to devote their lives and efforts to the struggle against Muslims and Pagans. Active in the Baltic Region.
Robert Guiscard
Norman adventurer who created a state for himself in Italy. His brother Roger took Sicily.
Reconquista
Conquest of Spain in the 1060s to 1150.

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