Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163), unified China, ruled Qin dynasty,built many roads, started Great Wall of China, divided kingdoms into districs, the first emperor of China
Dynasty that came to power in China in 221 B.C. under which the first true empire of China was created
Western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.). His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.(p. 62)
the “Old Master” who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism)
imperial dynasty that ruled China from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy, dynasty that overthrew the Qin, established centrralized government, civil service system, Silk Road
the proper “Way” that a king was expecfted to rule in order to please the gods and protect the people
originally a vassal family of the Shang; possibly Turkic in origin; overthrew Shang and established 2nd Chinese dynasty., The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61), The Zhou Dynasty (POJ: Chiu Tiau; 1122 BC to 256 BC) was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history—though the actual political and military control of China by the dynasty only lasted during the Western Zhou. During the Zhou, the use of iron was introduced to China, while this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze-ware making. The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved from the ancient stage as seen in early Western Zhou bronze inscriptions, to the beginnings of the modern stage, in the form of the archaic clerical script of the late Warring States period.
Chinese defensive fortification built to keep out northern nomadic invaders; began during the reign of Shi Huangdi.
people of the lowest status; did unskilled jobs; wore a green scarf to show their status; punished harsher for crimes;
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
is an interconnected series of ancient trade routes through various regions of the Asian continent, mainly connecting Chang’an (today’s Xi’an) in China, with Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. It extends over 8,000 km (5,000 miles) on land and sea. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Indian subcontinent, and Rome, and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world. The first person who used the term “seidenstrassen” or Silk Road was the German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen in 1877.
(n.) a powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time
a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples
A corpus of texts considered authoritative by the early Confucians. They include poetry, historical, speeches, chronicles, ritual, and divination, Texts used to train scholars and civil servants in ancient China
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
Era of Warring States
(402-201 BCE); regional rulers made their own armies and fought for control; during this time Zhou Dynasty died;, 441-221 B.C.E. Feudal lords fight amongst each other for territory and power. Ethics of war are broken and new rules are less-gentlemen like.
Who: officials in Confucius style government. What: passed very difficult exams in order to hold leadership positions. They formed their own social class, called the Gentry. Many of them attended a university that had been built. Where: China, started in the state of Lu. When: 6th century BC on for 2000 years. Why: Led the Confucian government and were the only people, often, who could read and write.
a sytem of social organization built around authority and power of fathers