AP World History Chapter 2 Vocab

AP World History Chapter 2 Vocab

Norte Chico/Caral
one of the early civilizations in Peru from 3000 B.C.E. to 1800 B.C.E. Received little rainfall but had runoff rivers from the Andes Mountains. They were a series of about 25 urban centers, with earthen mounds for ceremonies. This is significant because it was unique from other civilizations. It did not show much economic specialization, but rather based on fishing and exchange. Developed much less than other civilizations
Indus valley civilization
remarkable civilization during 3rd millennium BCE. By 2000 BCE it was much larger than Mesopotamia, Egypt, or Peru with elaborately planned cities. Everything was standardized, with the main economic activity being irrigated agriculture. It was abandoned by 1700 BCE. They generated no palaces, temples, elaborate graves, kings, or warrior classes. They were an early civilization with little political hierarchy or centralized state. It is one of the only civilizations to have a sophisticated society without corresponding state
Central Asian/Oxus civilization
in Oxus or Amu Darya River Valley after 2200 BCE many residential compounds, artisan workshops, temples. Based on agriculture, stock raising, unique culture expressed in art. It had no literary history. By 1700 BCE it had been abandoned, another example of over planting and too much agriculture haring the civilization.
Early Chinese Civilizations
dating to around 2200 BCE, with the ideal of a centralized state from the beginning. Many dynasties expanded the Chinese state, lavish tombs, many sacrifices. By 1046 (Zhou) political ideology emerged with a ruler (son of heaven). They had a clear ruler, and had the Mandate of Heave, early writing. It lasted the longest, with Chinese dynasties existing into nearly present day
Olmec civilization
around 1200 BCE along Gulf of Mexico, based on agriculture of maize, beans and squash, cities arose from a series of competing chiefdoms and became economic centers with temples, altars, pyramids, and tombs. This was considered the “mother civilization” for Mesoamerica and started written language in the Americas by 900 BCE. Their cultural patterns spread widely and greatly influenced subsequent civilizations, such as Maya and Teotihuacan
Uruk
Ancient Mesopotamia’s largest city, with over 20 foot tall walls and over 50,000 people in 3rd millennium BCE. Many pyramids and temples, and many different jobs. This shows how agriculture has led to many amazing human developments. Storing food and being able to specialize jobs has led to many cities in the first civilizations
Mohenjo Daro/Harappa
located along the banks of the Indus River around 2000 BCE with 40,000 people. Harappa was its sister city, and had large, richly built houses, plumbing, grid streets, complex sewage system, grand public buildings. This featured plumbing, which people were able to develop with free time. Having surplus food allowed for many innovations. It shows the divide in class due to job specialization as well
Epic of Gilgamesh
Mesopotamia’s ancient epic poem, describes many ancient cities, such as Uruk. It also showed the pessimistic view/outlook of the gods and the world in Mesopotamia. This poem does a good job of depicting what life may have been like in the first civilizations and cities of Mesopotamia, including their appearance and features and their cultural views
Code of Hammurabi
describes the punishment for crime in Mesopotamia based on social class. If a commoner struck someone equal, they payed a fine, but were beat if they struck a superior. This code shows the class hierarchies and how equality was beginning to fade. It was used to give punishments
patriarchy
cultures define roles in society based on gender, men as superiors, women typically stayed home and men did work out of the house, women were defined by their relationship to a man. This division among genders is representative of warfare, as men were needed to fight, and because the agriculture required much more physical strength
rise of the state
held civilizations together, usually headed by kings, protected the upper class, authority was increased by writing (elite status, prestige, propaganda, accounting), luxury for kings and upper class. States are significant because they furthered the social inequality and protected the upper class, but also held civilizations together
Egypt: “the gift of the Nile”
Nile river valley, positive outlook, protected from attack, Pharohs, sustainable agriculture, lasted 3,000 years, unified territory, cities were less important, traded with Mesopotamia and others nearby. This is a good example that shows the different aspects required for a successful civilization to last for a long time
Paneb
13th century BCE, illustrates not orderly side of Egypt, born into a tomb worker family, married with a large family (trouble with rape, seduced women), harassed and tricked workers, stole, classic Egyptian criminal. Portrays the side that is not orderly or harmonious, shows the criminals that existed in most civilizations but were not always portrayed
Nubia
south of Egypt in the Nile valley, located deep into Africa, became part of the Egyptian empire by 14th century BCE. Shows Egypt’s relationships for trade with many other civilizations and how it was important that they were on good terms so they could get everything they needed