AP World History Chapter 20: Africa and the Africans

AP World History Chapter 20: Africa and the Africans

What linked Africa to the world economy?
slave trade
What did forced migration result in?
international exchange of disease, food, ideas
What were factors in the development of large kingdoms in Africa?
firearms
increase of population
improved agriculture
demand for slaves
What were the Portuguese trading forts called? What was the most important outpost located?
factories, 1482 at El Mina
How did the local rulers react to these forts?
they approved, because of trade benefits
How did this trade between Africa and the Portuguese work?
Africans aquired goods from Portuguese and in return received ivory, pepper, animal skins and gold
What did they try to do besides trade with the Africans?
convert the rulers of Benin, Kongo, and other kingdoms
What African kingdom had the most success with missionary conversion?
kongo
Who was Nzinga Mvemba?
king of kongo from 1507-1543 converted to Christianity
What became the basis for the Portuguese colony?
Luanda- 1570s on the coast basis for Angola
Who displaced the Portuguese later?
Dutch, English, French
What goods did the Portuguese initially seek? What replaced it?
gold and peppers replaced by slavery
What year did the first slaves arrive in Africa from Portugal?
1441
What crop added an emphasis on the slave trade and where?
sugar in the Canaries Islands and Maderia
What is the estimated number of slaves shipped across the Atlantic between 1450 and 1850?
12 million
What was the mortality rate on the ship during the Middle Passage?
10-20% on the ship total 25-40%
How many actually arrived in the Americas?
10-11 million
What century was the greatest age of the Atlantic slave trade?
18th
Why was the high volume of slave trade neccessary to the slave owners?
slave mortality and fertility was low
What region received the most slaves in the Americas than any other between 1550 and 1850?
American plantations in Brazil
By the 16th century the majority of slaves were exported from?
Senegambia region
How were the trans-Atlantic slave trades different?
trans saharan- focused on women
trans atlantic- focused on men
How did the Atlantic slave trade have a demographic impact on Africa?
skewed the porportion of women to men in African society
What is the Royal African Company?
chartered in the 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants
The Spanish term for a healthy male?
Indies Piece
Was the slave trade profitable for the capital needed for the Industrial revolution?
No 5-10% profit
What is the Triangular trade?
commerce linking Africa, the New World, and Europe
How did Europeans rationalize their part in the slave trade?
slavery already existed in the continent
increase in wealth and status
How was slavery viewed in the Sudanic states of the Savannah?
fate for nonbelievers
illegal for Muslims
What were the results of the presence of europeans right on the coast?
shift of the locuse of power within Africa
What were the results hust beyond the coast?
redirected trade to the coast
What was the gun and slave cycle that enabled centralizing states to expand more rapidly?
increased firepower allowed for these states to expand produce more slaves, and trade for guns
What was Asante? What did they trade?
established in the Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi traded gold and kola nut. developed during slavery at the Gold coast
Who is Osei TuTu?
Member of Oyoko clan of Akan people, linked clans unified Asante Empire in 1701
What is the title given to the supreme civil and religious leader of the Asante?
Asantehene
What was Dahomey and how did the Dahomey kingdom rule?
kingdom developed among the Fon peoples, the kings ruled with advice from councils but with access to firearms and a brutal political regime based on the slave trade
How was trade established on the east coast of Africa?
Swahili continued commerce with the Portuguese and the Ottoman turks
What was Bunyoro?
place where the Luo eventually established a ruling dynasty among the Bantu
What is Sufi?
muslim reform movement in 1770s swept through trade of the W. Sudan
What is Fulani?
pastoral people of W. Sudan adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam
Who is Dan Fodi? What kingdom did he rebel against?
Muslim Fulani scholar preached against the Hausa jihad against the Hausa kings
What caliph state was formed?
Sokoto
What area of Africa little affected by the slave trade?
southern end
What happened in 1652?
Dutch East India Company estalbished a colony on the Cape of Good Hope
Who rose as a great leader? When? What did he do?
Shaka, 1818, reformed loose forces into regiments organized by lineage and age, iron, discipline
Describe the mfecane.
forced migration north and south raiding the Portuguese coasts and the Boers
When and how was the Zulu’s dominance ended?
Zulu wars of 1870 crushed by Great Britain
What were the zulu wars?
new competition for land against the Europeans and Africans, expanding influence of European government used slaves
Middle Passage.
slave voyage from Africa to the americas 25-40% mortality
Why were slaves brought for plantation labor?
knowledgable about farming
How did the southern British North American slaves differ from Latin American slaves?
British depended less on importing slaves because of natural population growth among the slaves
Hierarchy of slaves.
white men
mixed race
salt water slaves
creoles
How did most slaves live?
family units
What were the African religions?
Obeah, Candomble, Vodun, Aja
How did slaves rebel?
recalcitrance, running away, direct confrontation
What events caused many to think of slavery differently?
Industrial revolution, Enlightenment, Christian revivalism
Who was the English opponent of slavery?
William Wilberforce
When was the British slave trade abolished?
1807
Why is there a disagreement about the end of the slave trade?
hard to find direct link between economic self interest and the movement to suppress slavery