AP World History Chapter 21

Toltec
definition: a people who invaded central Mexico and were ruled by a military class; had a capital city of Tula; influenced the Maya; introduced the working of gold and silver; spread the worship of their god Quetzalcoatl; destroyed in the AD 1100s

significance: helped set up the region for society

Mexica
definition: founded Tenochtitlan; regarded themselves as chosen people in charge of keeping the world from destruction

significance: founded Tenochtitlan and the Aztecs

Huitzilopochtli
definition: Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god

significance: Led Aztec religion

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Quetzalcoatl
definition: Aztec nature god, feathered serpent, his disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes

significance: coaxed the Aztecs into helping Cortes

Pueblo
definition: a member of any of about two dozen Native American peoples called pueblos by the Spanish because they live in villages built of adobe and rock

significance: demonstrated Spanish influence

Iroquois
definition: New York Indian tribe which

significance: built great mounds that are marvels to look at

Inca
definition: a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s

significance: built roads, major society of South America

Tenochtitlan
definition: capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco; population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest; Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.

significance: Demonstrated Aztec ingeniuity

Chinampas
definition: Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields

significance: led to more agriculture

Quipu
definition: knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the Inca to keep financial records

significance: helped to make up for lack of writing

Cahokia Mound
definition: enormous earthen mound at Cahokia near East St. Louis, Illinois; built by Iroquois people for ceremonies or ritual performance

significance: demonstrated Iroquois ingenuity

Marae
definition: Polynesian ceremonial precinct and temple structure; often had several terraced floors

significance: demonstrated polynesian culture

Ali’i nui
definition: a chief or noble (hereditary) in Polynesian tribes

significance: demonstrated hierarchy in Polynesian societies

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