AP world history chapter 25 vocabulary

Tainos
Inhabited the islands of the Caribbean
Encomienda
The institution of forced labor
Peru & Mexico
Had vast supplies of silver
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Sugar & tobacco
French settlers in the Caribbean hoped to produce these valuable cash crops
Several million slaves from west africa
European settlers needed workers to operate their estate and began to import
Hernan Cortes
Conquistador in Mexico
Francisco pizzaro
In peru led expeditions of conquest which led to the toppling of the aztec and incan empires
The spanish crown
By 1570 developed a formal policy of control and administration of justice for formerly conquistadore-run territories
Audiencas
Review courts staffed with university educated lawyers to review viceroys decisions and evaluate performances
Brazil
Portugal est. An imperial realm here as a result if the 1494 treaty of tordesillas
Criollos or creoles
Individuals born of iberian parents in the americas second on the social hierarchy
Peninsulares
Term applied to migrants born in europe were at the top of the social hierarchy
Zambos
Born of indigenous and african parents
Mestizos or mulattoes
Born of portuguese and african parents
Mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Quinto
One-fifth: amount the Spanish crown was to receive of all precious metals mined in the Americas.
Encomienda system
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
Pueblo revolt
1680, revolt of indigenous laborers led by shaman named Pope’. killed colonists and priests and got Spanish out of modern-day New Mexico for 12 years
Tupac amaru rebellion
rebellion of Peru natives in 1780; 60 thousand natives revolted in the name of Tupac Amaru for two years killing thousands of people
Engenho
Sugar mill
Felipe guaman poma de ayla
Sent a 1200 page letter with four hundred illustrations to king philip the third of spain detailing the abuse of indigenous peoples
Metis
inhabitants of the area around Red River. They were of mixed blood-French and Scottish fur traders and natives
Pero alvares cabral
After this voyage the portuguese king decided to grant these new brazil landsto his nobles
Colonial assemblies
American representative assemblies wished to limit the powers of crown officials (following Glorious Revolution). Gradually won control of taxation and loca appointments. Their rising power created an elitist, not democratic, pol system.
Northwest passage to asia
England, French, and the Netherlands hoped to discover.
Treaty of tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Viceroyalities
2 major divisions, one on lima, one on mexico city

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