AP World History Chapter 27 and 28 test

Mongol Yuan Dynasty
(1279-1368) nomadic Mongol warriors; ignored chinese political and cultural traditions and displaced chinese bureaucrats in favor of turkish, persian, and other foreign administrators.
Ming Dynasty
restored native rule to china; hongwu drove mongols out and rebuilt state; followed yuan dynasty (1368-1644); pirates and smugglers dominated east coast of china and ming defenses were ineffective
Eunuchs
caused government corruption and inefficiency; very powerful; factor in ming decline
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The Great Wall
along the norther border of china; sought by the ming to protect their realm; long, defensive wall, originally built by qin; rebuilt and repaired by ming to prevent northern invasions
Manchus
allied with peasants to overthrow ming dynasty; (1644 – 1911) invaders fro manchuria
Qing Dynasty
originally pastoral nomads, organized powerful military; ethnic elite; forbade intermarriage with chinese; invaded by manchus
Qing Kangzi
ruled 1661- 1722; confucian scholar; enlightened ruler; conquered taiwan, extended to mongolia, central asia, and tibet
Qing Qianlong
sophisticated poet and artist; vietnam, burma, and nepal made vassal states of china; china was prosperous and powerful under his rule
Son of Heaven
emperor was considered this; heavenly powers and obligations to maintain order on the earth; privelaged life and very powerful
Civil Service Examinations
very competitive; few chosen for government positions; created meritocracy with best students running empire; wealthy families had advantage over poor; confucian curriculum fostered common values
Infanticide
female infanticide: widows were encouraged to commit suicide; part of strict patriarchal control over females
Foot Binding
foot binding of young girls increased; tightly constrained and deformed by strips of linen, girls’ feet were bound to demonstrate wealth and ability to support women
Zheng He and Treasure Ships
financed by emperor yongle; eunich admiral that led maritime expeditions; led treasure ships through indian ocean; intimidated local authorities and made chin’as presence felt throughout indian ocean basin
Ming and Qing Dynasties support of Confucianism
supported educational programs; funded hanlin academy (research institute for confucian scholars); maintained provincial schools throughout china where students could study for civil service exams
Relationship between Confucianism and Christianity
jesuits were respectful of chinese tradition, but won very few converts; chinese had problems with exclusivity of christianity (christianity implied that confucianism, daoism, and buddhism were inferior to christianity).
Ghazi
muslim religious warriors; they flocked to join the ottomans; ottoman military leaders initially organized ghazi recruits in two forces: light cavalry and volunteer infantry
sultan
king or ruler of muslim state or country
viziers
high official in muslim countries, especially in turkey under ottoman rule
janissaries
those who became soldiers in the ottoman empire; christian boys were taken fro families, converted to islam, and trained to serve the sultan
millets
autonomous religious communities that retained civil laws, traditions, and languages
jizya tax
tax paid by christians and jews who lived in muslim communities to allow them continue to practice their own religion
topkapi palace
heart of istanbul; housed government officials and meeting places for imperial councils; at its core was the sultan’s residence
mehmed
took control of ottoman empire; best known for conquering constantinople and renaming it istanbul
suleyman
ottoman sultan (1512-1520) expansion in asia and europe; helped ottomans become naval power, challenged christian vessels throughout mediterranean; exacted murder on 2 of his sons and a grandson in order to prevent a civil war
twelver shiism
a belief that there were 12 infallible imam after muhammad; the 12th went into hiding and would return to take power and spread the true religion
shah
ancient persian imperial title given to ismail
isfahan
capitol of safavid empire; encouraged trade with other lands and reformed administrative and military instiututions of the empire
shah abbas the great
best known shah; centralized the government and created a powerful military force similar to the janissaries of the ottoman; used a mix of peace and war against ottomans; reduced taxes and encouraged growth of industry
religious toleration
policy established by akbar that he hoped would reduce tensions between hindu and muslim communities in india.
sikhs
nonviolent religious group that blended buddhism, hinduism, and sufism
taj mahal
extravagant mausoleum at agra built by the mogul emperor shah jahan in memory of his favorite wife
gunpowder weapons
transformed early modern warfare and safavids and mughals also incorporated gunpowder weapons into their arsenals
british east india company
along with french east india co. and dutch VOC, traded actively with safavids; sent military advisers to introduce gunpowder weapons to safavid armed forces and provided a navy to help them reatake hormuz
babur
a chaghatai turk who claimed descent from chinggis khan and tamerlane who was an adventurer in northern india
akbar
most illustrious sultan of the mughal empire in india; expanded the empire and pursued policy of conciliation with hindus
aurangzeb
mughal emperor in india and great grandson of akbar; decentralized the government

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