One major contrast between Classical China and India was?
focus on politics
Classical China was focused on?
politics and philosophy
India was focused on?
religion and social structures
How was India and China similar? (7 things)
agricultural society, peasant farmers, peasant villages, patriarchy, important cities, trade, schools and academies
In terms of geography how was India different than China?
closer to other civilizations
India was influenced by outsiders from where?
Middle East and Mediterranean
How did the outsiders influence India?
new artistic styles, political concepts, contacts with Hellenistic culture
India was separated from? By what?
the rest of Asia by the Himalayas
Important mountain passes in the Himalayas link India to who?
other civilizations in the Middle East
The separation by the Himalayas made it hard to have what kind of unity?
India had greater _________ than China
India’s most important rivers?
Indus and Ganges
What did people do for a living in the north?
What did people do for a living in the south?
trading and seafaring
The separate north and south regions led to what two differences?
racial and language differences
Describe India’s climate, temperature, rain/type, extremes..
semitropical climate, up to 120 degrees during early summer, summer monsoon rains
What do the monsoon rains bring?
sometimes too little rain or come too late or catastrophic floods
Name of the formative period?
Vedic and Epic ages
What does formative mean?
in the process of building up
Who moved in during the formative period?
Dates of Vedic Age
What spread during the Vedic Age?
What tools did the Aryans use?
Preclassical Indian history comes from?
literary epics developed by Aryans (initially passed down orally)
What language were these literary eipics writtn down in?
Name of these sacred books?
What does Veda mean?
List 3 epic poems
Mahabharata, Ramayana, Upanishads
Explain the Aryans’ political organization
Village chiefs organized defenses and regulated property relationships
Explain the Aryans’ family structure.. who was in charge
patriarchal controls and close family relationships
The caste system started taking shape when?
during Vedic and Epic ages
How did the caste system start?
as a means of establishing relationships between conquerors and the indigenous people (who were regarded as inferior)
Explain the varnas or the order of importance
priests (brahmans), warriors (Kshatriyas), traders/farmers (Vaisyas), common laborers (Sudras), untouchables
What was the punishment for marrying outside your class?
What religious influence did the Aryans have?
brought religion of many gods and goddesses
Who was the god of thunder?
This Aryan god system resembled what other place?
Greek myth or Scandinavian mythology
What ideas added greatly to the spiritual power and later led to Hindu beliefs?
gave tradition a new spin, constructing a vigorous, complex religion that still endures
What animals were considered sacred?
monkeys and cattle (only certain animals that embody the divine spirit)
What did this Aryan religious influence eventually lead to?
Rhythm of India’s history was irregular because of?
landmark invasions from NW mountain passes
by 600 BCE how many regions existed?
16 major states
What type of leaders did these major regions have?
some monarchies, others republics ran by priests and warriors
Who attacked in 327 BCE?
Alexander the Great
Who stepped up for India to become the first ruler of the Mauryan dynasty?
What animal did Chandragupta include in his army?
Ashoka (269-232 BCE)
What type of leader was Ashoka?
lived a lavish lifestyle with brutal fighting methods
Ashoka converted to?
Buddhism (key to life is suffering)
Ashoka improved what?
trade and communication
Who invaded during the Mauryan dynasty?
When did the invaders of the Mauryan dynasty lose power?
What was the name of the new line of Kings after the Mauryan dynasty?
Who invaded the Guptas?
Huns (535 CE)
India didn’t have a solid regional rule like China. Theirs was?
Rulers had to hve what to control India?
Who gave rulers power? What religion went along with this?
the gods, Hinduism
Were there taxes?
seeked up to 1/6 of agricultural produce
Big or small bureaucracy?
small bureaucracy with local rulers
Language? Only one?
no single language (very diverse)
uniform law codes
sponsored road building
Was politics important?
Wht age did the caste system get complex?
after Epic Age
How many classes were in the caste system?
Could someone rise up in the caste system? Drop down?
can’t rise up but can drop down during life (can rise up when reincrnated after a life with good karma)
What did the caste allow to happen? It promoted?
allowed different kinds of people to get along and promoted tolerance
The caste system laid out what kind of rules?
detailed rules for each caste
to remain faithful to someone
Compare India’s shared cultural values the China (foundations of each society)
India emphasizes religion, and China emphasizes politics
Which religion was the cement of Indian society?
Hinduism encouraged what type of links with divine reality?
Who founded Hinduism?
no single founder
2 things Hinduism encourage finding
political and economic goals (artha) and wordly pleasures (karma)
What has led to Hinduism success?
ability to adapt
Explain the Upanishads
poems that stressed the shallowness of worldly concerns in favor of contemplation of the divine spirit
Explain divine principle
the basic holy essence (brahma) formed part of everything in this world
Divine principle is the quest for what?
union with the divine soul
Explain caste system and occupations
low-caste have few legal rights, masters can abuse servants, peasants have little contact with higher caste individuals
Indian Code law wanted women to?
worship her husband as a god
When did women get a little better situation?
when Indian civilization took clearer shape
Types of marriages?
Purpose of arranged marriages?
to ensure solid economic links
How were children treated?
small children were pampered then expected to work hard as they got older
Compare women in China to India
Both subordinate to men but Indian culture featured clever and strong-willed women and goddesses
new uses for chemistry, best steel, ironmaking, first to make cotton cloth, calico, cashmere
Compare India to China- merchant
Indian merchants have relatively high caste status, traveled widely, traded with other civilizations
How did the Indians influence art?
Indian-style temples and other art forms
How did the Indians influence religion?
Buddhism and Hinduism
The Indians outlasted who?
China and Rome
How were China and India alike? (list it)
large peasant class, close-knit villages, cities and merchant activity, landowners have political power, patriarchy
How were China and India different?
art, religion, social structures, trade