Norte Chico/ Caral
Norte Chico is a region along the central coast of Peru, home of a civilization that developed in the period 3000-1800 BCE; Caral was the largest of some 25 urban centers that emerged in the area at that time
Indus Valley civilization
located in South Asia in an area known as a subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh); northern migrants may have made their way to this area through a pass in the Hindu Kush mountains; domesticated sheep and goats here; built many cities, largest include Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro, and Harappa; cities planned on a precise grid system; featured an area called a citadel with major buildings of city; seperate residential districts constructed of oven-baked bricks cut in standard form; religion may be linked to modern Hindu culture
1st great civilization of Mesoamerica lasting from 1200 BC to 300 BC; Most were farmers, but they also hunted fish. they worshipped hundreds of gods, developed a calendar & a form of writing, had vast trade networks
an ancient Sumerian city in Southern Iraq, near the Euphrates, important before 2000 b.c. : exclusive archaeological excavations, notably of a ziggurat and of tablets with very early Sumerian script.
mohenjo daro/ harappa
Indus River cities- laid out in orderly manner, indoor bathrooms, monotheistic, domesticated animals, good farmers, system for weights and measures, traded with Sumer
code of hammurabi
the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
rise of the state
A process of centralization that took place in the First Civilizations, growing out of the greater complexity or urban life in recognition of the need for coordination, regulation, adjudication, and military leadership
epic of gilgamesh
an epic poem from Mesopotamia, and among the earliest known works of literary writing.
egypt: the gift of the Nile
provided annual and predictable flooding that benefited and provided a sustainable lifestyle for this civilization, also gave them a stable and positive worldview, proved unty and independence and security
A civilization to the south of Egypt in the Nile Valley, noted for development of an alphabetic writing system and a major iron working industry by 500 BCE
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning “foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.