AP World History: Chapter 5 Key Terms
In Zoroastrianism, the good god who rules the world
In Zoroastrianism, the evil god, engaged in a cosmic struggle with Ahura Mazda
A Greek polymath philosopher (384-322 B.C.E.); student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great
The human soul, which in classic Hindu belief seeks union with Brahman
A major female Confucian author of Han dynasty China (45-116 C.E.) whose works give insight into the implication of Confucian thinking for women
A great Hindu epic text, part of the much larger Mahabharata, which affirms the performance of caste duties as a path to religious liberation
An immensely popular development in Hinduism, advocating intense devotion toward a particular deity
The “World Soul” or final reality in upanishadic Hindu belief
The priestly caste of India
The cultural/religious tradition first enunciated by Siddhartha Gautama
The Chinese philosophy first enunciated by its “creator”, advocating the moral example of superiors as the key element of social order.
Confucius (Kong Fuzi)
The founder of Confucianism (551-479 B.C.E.); an aristocrat of northern China who proved to be the greatest influence on Chinese culture in its history
Roman emperor (r. 306-337 C.E.) whose conversion to Christianity paved the way for the triumph of Christianity in Europe
The central text of Daoism; translated as “The Way and Its Power”
A Chinese philosophy/popular religion that advocates simplicity and understanding of the world of nature, founded by the legendary figure Laozi
The honoring of one’s ancestors and parents, a key element of Confucianism
A secularizing system of scientific and philosophic thought that developed in classical Greece in the period 600 to 300 B.C. E.; it emphasized the power of education and human reason to understand the world in nonreligious terms.
A word derived from outsiders to describe the vast diversity of indigenous Indian religious traditions
A very influential Greek medical theorist (ca. 460-ca. 370 B.C.E.); regarded as the father of medicine
One of the most important prophets of Judaism, whose teachings show the transformation of the religion in favor of compassion and social justice (eighth century B.C.E.)
Jesus of Nazareth
The prophet/god of Christianity (ca. 4 B.C.E. – ca. 30 C.E.)
The monotheistic relgion developed by the Hebrews, emphasizing a sole personal god (Yahweh) with concerns for social justice.
In Hinduism, the determing factor of the level at which the individual is reincarnated, based on purity of action and fulfillment of duty in the prior existence
A legendary Chinese philosopher of the sixth century B.C.E.; regarded as the founder of Daoism
A Chinese philosophy distinguished by an adherence to clear laws with vigorous punishments
“Great Vehicle,” the popular development of Buddhism in the early centuries of the Common Era, which gives a much greater role to supernatural beings and proved to be more popular than original (Theravada) Buddhism
In Hindu belief, liberation from separate existence and union with Branham
The end goal of Buddhism, in which individual identity is “extinguished” into a state of serenity and great compassion
A disciple of Socrates whose Dialogues convey the teachings of his master while going beyond them to express his own philosophy; lived from 429 to 348 B.C.E.
A major Greek philosopher (ca. 560-ca 480 B.C.E.) who believed that an unchanging mathematical order underlies the apparent chaos of the world.
The first great popularizer of Christianity (10-65 C.E.)
Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha)
The Indian prince turned ascetic (ca 566-ca. 486 B.C.E.) who founded Buddhism.
The first great Greek philosopher to turn rationalism toward questions of human existence (469-399 B.C.E.)
Thales of Miletus
A Greek natural philosopher (ca. 624-ca.547 B.C.E.), noted for his application of reason to astronomy and for his questioning of the fundamental nature of the universe.
Roman emperor (r. 379-395 C.E.) who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman state, banning all polytheistic rituals.
“The Teaching of the Elders,” the early form of Buddhism according to which the Buddha was a wise teacher but not divine and which emphasizes practices rather than beliefs.
Indian mystical and philosophical works, written between 800 and 400 B.C.E.
The earliest religious texts of India, a collection of ancient poems, hymns, and rituals that were transmitted orally before being written down ca. 600 B.C.E.
Warring States period
Period in China from 403 to 221 B.C.E. that was typified by disorder and political chaos.
Yin and yang
Expression of the Chinese belief in the unity of opposites.
A Persian prophet, traditionally dated to the sixth or seventh century B.C.E. (but perhaps much older), who founded Zoroastrianism.
A Chinese philosopher (369-286 B.C.E.) who spelled out the teachings of Daoism.
Persian monotheistic religion founded by the prophet Zarathustra.