AP World History chapter 5

AP World History chapter 5

Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Precipate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. After defeating all rivals, he laid the groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire.
Ban Zhao
Chinese woman that wrote “lessons for women” in the first century. It illuminates the unresolved tensions in Han society’s attitude towards women. She also pleas for education of girls and for men to not beat their wives.
Constantine
Roman Emperor. After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity the favored religion.
Diocletian
Roman Emperor who restored order after the Third Century Crisis by making fundamental changes. He implemented radical reforms that saved the Roman state by transforming it. To halt inflation, he set a maximum price on things. He froze many people into essential professions. “Black Market” arose.
Emperor Wu
He came to be an emperor as a teenager, and he did much to increase his power. He launched military operations, abandoned the policy of appeasing the Xiongnu, built up the military (especially Calvary) and went on offense.
Empress Lü
Gaozu’s wife. She played a role in determining which of the many sons would succeed to the throne. She often chose weak figures that could easily be controlled by family, and this is why Wu became an Emperor.
Gaozu
throne name of Liu Bang. He was one of the rebel leaders that brought down the Qin and founded the Han dynasty in 202 BC.
Jesus
A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel that sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. The Romans executed him as a revolutionary. Hailed as the Messiah and son of God by his followers, he became the central figure for Christianity, and a belief system that developed in the centuries after his death. FOUNDED CHRISTIANITY
Julius Caesar
conquered Gaul. Made himself dictator. Assassinated by the Senate because they were afraid they would make himself king.
Justinian
emperor who briefly reoccupied some old imperial territoties in Italy and Tunisia. Corpis Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) was compiled because of him.
Mencius (Mengzi)
son of Ban Zhou, a Confucian philosopher whose mother’s biography preserves traditional beliefs about the conduct appropriate for women
Paul
A jew form the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initiallypersecuted the followers of Jesus but,after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became a Christian. Taking advantage of this Hellenized backround and Roman citizenship, he traveled throughout Syria-Palestine, Anatolia, and Greece, preaching the new religion and establishing churches. Finding his greatest success with Pagans, he began the process by which Christianity separated from Judaism. SPREAD CHRISTIANITY
Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire. He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states, standardization of practices, an forcible organization of labor from military and engineering tasks. His tomb, with its army of life size terracotta soldiers, has been partially excavated.
Sima Qian
Chief astrologer for the Han dynasty emperor Wu. He composed a monumental history of China from its legendary origins to his own time and is regarded as the Chinese “Father of History”
Trajan
Roman emperor that brought the Empire to its largest size. conquered Dacia, built Trajan’s column
Wang Mang
became popular with the common people. “Socialist Wang”. Robin Hood. He was taken out because of the Mandate of Heaven. The Yellow River cataclysmically changed courses and he was taken out of power and killed.
Xiongnu
a confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwestern frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off theses “barbarians” as they called them, and finally succeeded in dispersing the Xiongnu in the 1st century.
Aqueduct
a conduit, either elevated or underground, that used gravity to carry water from a source to a location- usually a city- that needed it. Romans built many aqueducts in a period of substantial urbanization
Chang’an
city in the Wei valley in eastern china. It became the capital of the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han Empire.
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome
Equites
In ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second in wealth and status o the senatorial aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with this group to counter balance the influence of the old aristocracy and used the equites to stall the imperial civil service.
Gentry
In China, a class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel. Respected for their education and expertise, these officials became a privileged group and made the government more efficient and responsive than in the past. The term gentry also denotes the class of landholding families in England below the aristocracy.
Latifundia
literally “broad estates” or ranches. Replaced the small, self sufficient farms of the Italian countryside, whose peasant owners were the backbone of roman legions.
Patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
Plebeians
the poorer majority of the roman empire; the working class; couldnt be part of government; could vote but not hold office; couldnt be in army
Red eyebrows
Chinese insurgents who killed Wang Mang after the flood of the Yellow River.
Roman Senate
a council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally the advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing Empire. Under Senate leadership, Rome conquered an empire of unprecedented extent in the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
Xiongnu Confederacy
posed a huge military threat to China for centuries with frequent wars and high costs in lives and resources. A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwestern frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off theses “barbarians” as they called them, and finally succeeded in dispersing the Xiongnu in the 1st century.
Corpus Juris Civilis
“body of civil law”. Most famous and complete collection of laws. Compiled in Latin by 17 legal scholars by emperor Justinian.
Edict of Milan
a ruling by Constantine that allowed Christians to openly practice their faith in the Roman empire.
Han
a term used to designate the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and the dynasty of emperors who ruled.
pax romana
literally “Roman Peace” it connoted the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first 2 centuries. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas.
Punic Wars
a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome’s dominance in the western Mediterranean
Qin
a people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire. The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and ruthlessly marshaled subjects for military and construction projects, engendered hostility that led to the fall of his dynasty shortly after his death. The Qin framework was largely taken over by the succeeding Han Empire.
Rise of Christianity
Early in the Pax Romana, Christianity was created in the Roman empire. Christanity grew rapidly and by A.D. 395, Christianity had been declared the official religion of the Roman empire.
Roman Principate
a term used to characterize Roman Government in the first 3 centuries, based on the ambiguous title Princeps (“first citizen”) adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship.
Roman Republic
period in 507-31 BC. During which the aristocratic Roman Senate largely governed Rome.
Romanization
process by which the Latin languages and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces. Indigenous peoples in the provinces often chose to Romanize because of political and economic advantages that it brought, as well as the allure of Roman success.
Sui / Tang
successors to the Han dynasty