AP World History Chapter 7 Vocabulary

AP World History Chapter 7 Vocabulary

The Medes and The Persians
Before 1000 B.C.E, the Medes and the Persians were two closely related groups that migrated from central Asia to modern-day southwestern Iran or what was known back then was Persia.
Cyrus
Cyrus came from a mountainous region in southwest Iran and was an unlikely canidate for his role to launch the Persians’ imperial venture. Cyrus the Archaemenid reigned from 558-530 B.C.E.
Cyrus’s Conquests
*558 B.C.E.~Became king of the Persian tribes
*553 B.C.E.~ Initiates rebellion Median overlord
*548 B.C.E~ Brought all of Iran under his control and searched for . ways to expand his influence
*546 B.C.E~ Conquered the powerful kingdom of Lydia in Anatolia
*545-539 B.C.E~ Campaigned in central Asia and Bactria
*539 B.C.E~ In a swift campaign, he seized Babylon.
Darius
Darius reigned from 521-486 B.C.E. and was a younger kingsman of Cyrus. He is known for extending the empire both east and west.
Persepolis
The capital of Persia located near Pasargadae.
Archaemenid Administration: The Satrapies
Administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps
Taxes, Coins, and Laws
Darius regulated tax levies and standardized laws in order to improve administrative efficiency.
Roads and Communication
Archaemenids built roads across their realm called the “Persian Royal Road” and it stretched approximately 1600 miles. This road system helped so much with communication in their empire.
The Archaemenid Commonwealth
the roads and administrative machinery enabled them to govern a vast empire and extend Persian influence.
The Persian Wars
The Persians had conflict with their ethnic Greek subjects and their efforts to control the Greeks brought the collapse of the Archaemenid empire.
Alexander Of Macedon
Also known as referred to as Alexander the Great, invaded Persia with 48000 men.
The Seleucids
After Alexander died, the chief divided his empire into 3 realms. most of the former Archaemenid empire went to Seleucus (reigned 305-281 B.C.E.).
The Parthians
They established themselves as lords of a powerful empire based in Iran that they extended to Mesopotamia.
Parthian Conquests
The Parthian satrap revolted against the Seleucids for independence.
Parthian Government
They governed themselves through satraps and placed a great deal of responsibility in their clan leaders.
The Sasanids
The imperial rule continued with the Sasanids who claimed direct descent from the Archaemenids.
Imperial Bureaucrats
ran day to day affairs in the empire
Free Classes
Free classes artisans, craftsmen, merchants, and low ranking civil servants. The free class consisted of individuals who were free but did not get to enjoy the privileges of clan leaders and important bureaucrats.
Slaves
A majority of slaves consisted of prisoners of war who had debt to paying the price of survival.
Agriculture Production
Barley, wheat, grains, peas, lentils, mustard seeds, garlic, onion, cucumbers, dates, apples, pomegranates
Trade
Factors that affected the growth of trade consisted of prosperity, political stability, the use of standardized coins, good trade routes such as the “Persian royal Roads”, and good sea routes using the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea.
Zarathustra
Zarathustra created a belief he called Zarathustrainism
The Gathas
Hymms that Zarathustra composed in honor of various deities
Zoroastrain Teachings
he taught that monotheism wasn’t a must, Ahura Mazda was a supreme deity, eternal/beneficent spirit, and the creator of all good things.
Popularity Of Zoroastrianism
This belief was very popular during the sixth century b.c.e among the Persian aristocrats and ruling elites.