AP World History Chapter 8

AP World History Chapter 8

Liu Bang
Commander in the Qin army who took over China after the Qin dynasty fell
Liu Bang
The founder of the Han dynasty
Liu Bang
Emperor who tried to combine the Qin and Zhou government structures but failed and resorted to strict centralization
Han Wudi
The greatest emperor of the Han Dynasty who strengthened the centralized rule in China and expanded China’s borders
Han Wudi
The emperor who ended the Xiongnu threat by establishing colonies in the Central Asian steppes and stealing the Xiongnu’s trade
Han Wudi
The emperor who began to educate his bureaucrats with a Confucian university but still relied on Legalistic policies
Wang Mang
An adviser to a young emperor in the Han Dynasty. He overthrew that emperor and claimed the throne for himself, thus puncturing Han rule for a brief period of time
Wang Mang
The socialist emperor. He tried to limit the amount of land a family could hold to fix the unequal land distribution in China
Confucius
also known as Kong Fuzi
Confucius
A politician who sought to end the Period of Warring States with his many ideals on an ideal ruler, but no one accepted his teachings
Confucius
A teacher during the Period of Warring States who developed the teachings in the Analects and developed the concept of Junzi
Legalism
One of the philosophies that arose during the Period of Warring States. It was a blunt approach to government and was dedicated to strengthening China at all costs
Legalism
The philosophy that was primarily used to bring China out of the Period of warring States and used in the Qin and Han dynasties
Li
One of the three Confucian values that called for a sense of propriety among political leaders. It also one should revere their superiors.
Xiao
One of the three Confucian values that teaches of filial piety, the importance of family, and the veneration of ancestors
Ren
One of the three Confucian values that teaches that junzi should be kind and have a sense of humanity
Daoism
One of the philosophies that arose during the Period of Warring States. It taught of how people should become one with nature and achieve internal happiness
Daoism
The philosophy that conflicted with Confucianism, saying that society should revert to small, self-sufficient, and austere communities
dao
Means “the way” and is the central concept of Daoism
dao
A complex concept that is a way to find how the natural world works. It is eternal and unchanging, and it calls for the abandonment of goals and desires
wuwei
The chief moral virtue of Daoism that says that in order to obtain internal happiness one most abandon personal striving and education and disengage yourself from worldly affairs
Han Dynasty
The dynasty that succeeded the Qin dynasty and was the longest lasting dynasty in Chinese History
Han Dynasty
The dynasty that ended due to their unequal distribution of land that led to many rebellions
Han Dynasty
The dynasty that relied on centralized administration, Legalistic policies, and Confucian education for their bureaucrats
Analects
The book that held Confucius’s teachings and was compiled by his students. It teaches of junzi and the three Confucian values
Qin Dynasty
The dynasty that applied Legalistic policies to conquer surrounding states to end the Period of Warring States and reunify China under one rule
Qin Dynasty
The dynasty that relied on massive agriculture and their military force
Qin Dynasty
The dynasty that only ruled for 14 years but laid the foundation of centralized rule in China. They fell to rebellion spurred on by overworking the people
Daodejing
A book that means Classic of the Way of Virtue. It taught of basic Daoism values and beliefs
Xiongnu
The nomadic people who lived in the steppes above China. They constantly raided China during the Han dynasty but were China’s only connection of trade to the west.
Maodun
The great king of the Xiongnu who established the nomadic Xiongnu Empire north of China
Yellow Turban Uprising
The rebellion that severely weakened the Later Han dynasty. It tested the limits of the emperor’s power and was a key factor in the fall of the Han Dynasty
Sima Qian
The prime historian and eunuch of the Han Dynasty. He is responsible for reconstructing China’s history prior to the Han dynasty
Han Fiezi
A supporter of Legalism but student of Xunzi. He wrote powerful and persuasive essays about Legalistic thought a across all of China
Mencius
A student of Confucius who was the primary force in the spread of Confucianism across China during the Period of Warring States.
Mencius
An optimistic Confucian who emphasized Ren, but was never taken seriously by any political leader
Xunzi
An influential Confucian who emphasized Li more so than the other values. He created a Legalistic form of Confucianism which was widespread because he was a government administrator.
Xunzi
A Confucian who believed that leaders led by example, and those not beneficial to society should be severely punished
Laozi
The sage credited with the creation of Daoism and the Daodejing
Shang Yang
The chief minister to the Qin state in the Period of Warring States. He supported Legalistic methods in the state and allowed the state to conquer all of China
Eunuchs
Men who have undergone castration to gain a high political status next to the emperor. They are castrated because this prevents them from creating a family that could later challenge the emperor
Qin Shihuangdi
The first emperor of the unified Qin dynasty. He overworked the people to build Xianyang, roads, and many canals to facilitate domestic trade
Qin Shihuangdi
The emperor that started the tradition of centralized rule in China and also standardized the laws, currency, writing, taxes, and measurements of China
Xianyang
The capital of China built by the Qin Dynasty
Qin Shihuangdi
The emperor who built the Terra-Cotta army and is buried in that same tomb. He also started the Great Wall of China