AP World History Chapter 9: Buddhism

it has a founder
Buddhism is unlike Hinduism in this way
Buddhism
principal religion of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism; born in Nepal
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Buddha’s father
received a prophecy that said Siddhartha Gautama would become a great teacher or emperor; sheltered him so he would become a soldier
29
how old Siddhartha was when he left the palace walls
pervasive sorrow
Siddhartha set out on a quest to remedy this in life
ascetic
Siddhartha traveled for six years as this; practicing severe self-discipline
tree at Bodh Gaya
where Siddhartha Gautama began to meditate to become enlightened
Mara
revealed tempations given by this spirit to be illusions through a hand movement (mudra)
the Buddha
He Who Has Awakened
49
How many days did Buddha meditate before becoming enlightened?
Deer Park at Sarnath
where Buddha delivered his first sermon
Noble Eightfold Path
Right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right recollection, and right meditation
Nirvana
right living could bring release from the cycle of mortality and pain and entry into this; a kind of blissful nothingness
God
Buddha taught that there is no
80
age that Buddha died; 483 bce
Sangha
open to men of all castes; drew antagonism of brahmins
Tibet
today Buddhist nuns exist only here
Monks
used to beg for their livings, but increasingly got richer through money and land donations; contact with outside people has decreased
Caityas
Buddhist shrines
Metta
heavy emphasis on benevolence or
nonviolence and tolerance of all religions
heavy emphasis on ______ and _______
Dharma
heavy emphasis on proper behavior or
Theravada
fourth general council codified the key principals for this branch of Buddhism at Kashmir; prevails today in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia except for Vietnam
Mahayana
“The Greater Vehicle”
Bodhisattva
“being of wisdom”; postponed Nirvana to be reincarnated to another human form for the well-being of other humans in Mahayana Buddhism
religious merit
Mahayana Buddhism teaches that this can be achieved through good deeds and transferred to others
Amitabha Buddha
Mahayana heaven presided over by this person; had lived on earth and now become a father in heaven
Maitreya Buddha
suffering servant who will come to redeem humanity
Mahayana Buddhism
believed in multiple heavens and multiple forms of the Buddha presiding over them
Amitabha
one of the three aspects of Buddha according to Mahayana Buddhists: Buddha in heaven
Gautama
one of the three aspects of Buddha according to Mahayana Buddhists: historical Buddha on earth
Avalokiteshvara
one of the three aspects of Buddha according to Mahayana Buddhists: most revered of all the bodhisattvas, freely moving
Pali
Theravada preferred this language for their texts
Sanskrit
Mahayana used this language for their texts in India wishing to appeal to the upper classes more
Nagarjuna
Mahayana theologist; elaborated Buddhist philosophies and debated directly with brahmin priests
Nalanda in Bihar and Taxila
Buddhist monasteries est. educational programs at these two places
around the fall of the Gupta Empire
When did Buddhism start to decline in India?
Buddhism and Hinduism
people in India saw a lot of similarities between these two religions and didn’t bother to make a distinction
brahmin Hindu priests
Buddhists throughout history relied on these people to do their life cycle ceremonies (another reason for decline of Buddhism in India)
Hinduism
This evolved and became more attractive to Buddhists
syncretism
Hinduism had a tradition of this; it included the acceptance of Buddha in their religion in a reincarnated form of Vishnu
Muslims
these people took over the silk route and eventually invaded India; they eradicated Buddhism in India because they didn’t wish to coexist with it; Hinduism survived these peoples because it was more deeply rooted into Indian culture
Mahavir
a teacher of Jainism at about the same time as Buddha who guided the religion into its modern form
Jina
Mahavir’s designation of conquerer
Jains
follow eternal law of ethical treatment of others to reach nirvana
Silk Route
Buddhism arrived in China by
Luoyang
First Chinese monastery est. here
Faxian and Xuanzang
most notable pilgrims to visit the land of the Buddha and take notes on it
Han
Mahayana Buddhism took root in China after this dynasty fell
Daoists
Mahayana Buddhism attracted this group in China; they had slight competition, but that often led to recognition of one another
Buddhism
held a special appeal for rulers of Northern China because they were also outsiders (Toba rulers of Wei Dynasty)
Confucianism
brought down by the Han dynasty because they had lost the mandate and this philosophy was very closely connected with government at that time
Emperor Wu
declared Buddhism the official state religion in Liang (southern China)
Confucians
thought in terms of order and control
Buddhists
tended toward decentralized congregational worship within a loose doctrinal framework
Tang
eight different sects of Buddhism emerged under this dynasty, each with a different interpretation of the religion and its message
Zen
meditative exercises of Chan Buddhism (emphasized the importance of meditation to achieve enlightenement) became known as
Pure Land Buddhism
believed anyone could reach paradise after death through faith in Buddha Amitabha
woodblock printing
Buddhists invented this as a means of producing their religious texts
Diamond Sutra
earliest woodblock printing is an illustrated copy of ______ from 868 ce
Emperor Wu
only woman to ever rule China in her own name; used Buddhism to legitamize her rule; said she was a reincarnation of Maitreya, the buddha of future salvation
Islam
became the world religion of most of Central Asia
Tibet
only place that still supported Buddhism by state power
Vajrayana Buddhism
“vehicle of the thunderbolt”; came later in Eastern India to Tibet
Tantric Buddhism
another name for Vajrayana Buddhism; named for its scriptures advocating magic rituals; venerated not only Buddhas, but also their female counterparts
tantras
scriptures advocating magic rituals
Emperor Wuzong
was a Daoist and attacked Buddhism because he was personally opposed to it; during the Tang dynasty;
Shinto
Japanese people followed “The Way of The Kami” otherwise known as ______ before Buddhism arrived
Kamis
powers and spirits inherent in nature
Paekche
Buddhism first came to Japan from China through this kingdom of Korea
Buddhism in Japan
was seen as a way of performing miracles and healing the sick
Prince Shotoku Taishi
Buddhism found acceptance at a political level under this guy
Nara
Where Japan moved their capital city to and modeled after China’s capital of Chang’an
Shinto and Buddhism
these two religions coexist in Japan
Tendai
taught that each person could reach elightenment through sincere religious devotion on Japan
Enryakuji monastery
one of the most important temple communities in Japan
Buddhist clergy
became increasingly entwined with Japanese politics after having to fight alongside Shinto’s for their land rights to keep their temples on
Saicho
intended his monastery to remain aloof from politics
Shingon
“True Word” Buddhism; introduced by Kukai
kana syllabry
Japanese script in phonetic letters rather than ideograms; founded by Kukai
Mantras
formula of utterances of words and sounds that are believed to possess spiritual power (practice of both Hinduism and Buddhism) (sayings to live by)
Mandala
symbolic circular diagram of complex geometric design used as an instrument of meditation or in the performance of sacred rites in Hinduism and Buddhism
ideogram
character or figure in a writing system in which the idea of a thing is represented rather than its name
Amitabha Buddhism
form of Chinese Buddhism that influenced Japan; Buddha of infinite light
Zen or Chan Buddhism
emphasis on martial arts made is attractive to the increasingly powerful Buddhist class
art and aesthetic dimension
one of the ways in which Buddhism had a lasting effect on Japanese culture; many forms of it
literature
one of the ways in which Buddhism had a lasting effect on Japanese culture; Tale of Genji to novels of Mishima Yukio
blended and coexisted with Shinto
one of the ways in which Buddhism had a lasting effect on Japanese culture; religion

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