AP World History Chapter 9 Vocab

Quran
the recorded revelations in 610 of Muhammad Ibn Abdullah, sacred scriptures of Islam, some regard as words of God and core of faith, message was radically monotheistic, discussed submission to Allah, demanded social justice, challenged Arab clan and tribe system. These scriptures are the sacred text of Islam, lay out beliefs and requirements of the faith, shows Muhammad as the last prophet
umma
the just and moral society of Islam, the community of all-believers, replaced tribal, ethnic, and racial identities. In this community, women had and honored and spiritually equal place, it was bound by a common belief rather than territory, language or tribe, it replaced previous identities and created a new community of Muslims
Pillars of Islam
1st- no God but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger. 2nd- Pray to Mecca 5 times a day. 3rd- almsgiving, demands social justice and support for the poor and needy. 4th- month of fasting during Ramadan. 5th- encourage pilgrimage to Mecca called the hajj. Core beliefs and values of Islam, summarize the message of the Quran, basis of Muslim beliefs
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hijra
Muhammad and his followers’ 622 emigration to Yathrib, soon to be Medina, after Muhammad’s disloyalty to his own tribe enraged wealthy and ruling families of Mecca. Muhammad brought a sense of community and peace along this journey, formed a new umma, based on belief not birth, and in Medina he declared his movements’ independence from Judaism
sharia
a law regulating every aspect of life, grew out of lack of distinction between religious law and civil law, means “a path to water”. There was no professional clergy mediating between God and humankind, Muhammad was a religious figure and political and military leader, this was one major difference between Islam and Christianity
jizya
a special tax payed by the people who practiced their own religion, payed by dhimmis, Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians as “people of the book” protected but second-class subjects. Allowed Muslims to remain peaceful with the non-believers, theoretically used to keep non-Muslims out of military service
Umayyad Caliphate
first dynasty following Rightly Guided caliphs, ruled by Umayyad family from 661-750, Arab empire expanded greatly, caliphs became hereditary rulers, capital moved from Medina to Damascus in Syria. Shia viewed these caliphs and illegitimate usurpers, overthrown in 750 from criticism, protested rulers’ luxurious lives
Abbasid caliphate
replaced the Umayyads, new capital in Baghdad, prosperous Islamic civilization, non-Arabs played a prominent role, ended in 1258, governors asserted autonomy of the regions, fractured into sultanates. Further expanded the Islamic empire, more inclusive of non-Muslims, became politically fragmented
Sufism
represented Islam’s mystical dimension, sought direct and personal experience of the divine, reunification of material world, became wildly popular in 9th and 10th centuries. Challenged some aspects of traditional Islamic beliefs, more about personal connection with God, sometimes rejected Quran and other teachings of Islam
Sikhism
early 16th century, combination of Islam and Hinduism, founder was Guru Nanak (1469-1539), Islam values of one universal God, Allah, and Hindu concepts such as karma and rebirth. Showed the spread of Islam into India, believed everyone was equal and a child of God, but Islam remained a minority in India
Timbuktu
located in Africa, 16th century became center of Islamic religious and intellectual life, over 150 lower-level Quranic schools, several higher level centers. This center served as a point of growth for education, Arabic language, Islamic culture, and Quranic teachings
Mansa Musa
1324, ruler of kingdom of Mali, Muslim, sought to expand the kingdom for gold, journeyed to Mecca, in Cairo, showed pride and ignorance of Islamic law. His visit to Mecca elevated Mali’s status in the Islamic world, placed Sultan of Mali as one of the 4 major rulers of the Islamic world
House of Wisdom
Baghdad, center for research and translation of scientific, medical, and philosophical texts, established in 830 by the Abbasid caliphate. Example of how Islamic ideas circled the world, and Greek information was being translated into Arabic
madrassas
beginning in 11th century, formal colleges, offered more advanced instruction in the Quran and saying of Muhammad, informal teachings with text memorization. Another way ulama passed on the teachings of the faith, important for knowledge of the faith
al-Andalus
chief site of Islamic encounter with Christian Europe, conquered by Arab and Berber forces in early 8th century, Muslims, Christians, and Jews contributed to the culture, by 1000, 75% had converted to Islam. Began to fade by late 10th century, place of harmony and tolerance while it lasted
Ibn Battuta
Arab Moroccan visitor, 14th century, not happy with greater freedoms of women in Anatolia, appalled by the freedoms in Anatolia and West Africa. Freedom for women was uncommon at this time due to the patriarchal societies and traditional Islamic values, his reactions show the changes in freedoms
ulama
religious scholars, held religious authority in general from the larger community for Sunni Muslims. Led to the religious and political conflict between Sunni and Shia Muslims, different from imans of the Shia Muslims, passed on core teachings of faith within madrassas, taught in homes, mosques, shrines, and Quranic schools
al-Ghazali
1058-1111, major Islamic thinker, legal scholar and Sufi practitioner. Worked out an intellectual accommodation among different strands of Islam, noted that differences were an element of tension
Ibn Sina
980-1038, writer in almost all fields of science and philosophy, set standards for medical practice in Islamic and Christian worlds. Accurately diagnosed many diseases and found treatments, revolutionary and very important writings

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