Ap World History Chapter 9

Punjab
A northern region of India. It is the only way one can enter India by land without going over the Himalayas
Maurya Dynasty
An Indian Empire that had a bureaucratic administration. It unified all of India into a peaceful and stable empire save for the southern tip of India
Maurya Dynasty
A dynasty that fell when it overtaxed the people, which led to rebellion which overthrew the emperor. It split into multiple regional kingdoms
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Maurya Dynasty
The empire in India that supported Buddhism, and later accepted Hinduism when it arose
varna
The main social class distinction in the caste system
brahmins
The head social class, the priests
kshatriyas
the nobles and warriors
vaishyas
the artisans and merchants
shudras
the peasants and serfs
untouchables
The lowest social class. Those who perform unclean and unholy jobs and are excluded from society
Four Noble Truths
Says that desire causes suffering, elimination of desire eliminates suffering, all life involves suffering, a disciplined life following the Eight-fold Path ends all desire
Four Noble Truths
The core of the dharma and Buddhism
Noble Eight-fold Path
A teaching of Buddhism that demands individuals to lead moderate lives, reject luxuries, and follow an ascetic way of life to obtain salvation
Chandra Gupta
A leader who made alliances with other kingdoms and gradually made them subservient to his rule. In this way he founded the Gupta Empire
Samudra Gupta
Successor of Chandra Gupta who worked to expand the Gupta empire even farther. He helped rebuild Pataliputra and formed more alliance with nearby kingdoms
Chandra Gupta II
Successor of Samudra Gupta who expanded the Gupta empire and rebuilt Pataliputra.
Chandragupta Maurya
Founder of the Maurya Empire
Chandragupta Maurya
A leader who exploited the turmoil that Alexander the Great left when he attacked India. He overthrew the Magadha empire and expanded his own empire into Greek Bactria
Magadha Empire
The empire that ruled Punjab, endured Alexander the Great’s attack, and was conquered by the Maurya Dynasty
White Huns
The nomadic invaders from Greek Bactria. They constantly strained the Gupta Empire with constant invasions.
White Huns
The invaders that expanded into Gupta India. They established their own kingdoms in Gupta territory which eventually overthrew the Gupta Empire
Siddhartha Guatama
Founder of Buddhism who tried to find the source of suffering. He achieved enlightenment and made the Noble Eight-fold Path and the Four Noble Truths
The Buddha
What Guatama became after he achieved enlightenment while meditating under a tree. His name means ” the enlightened one”
Bodh Gava
The place that Guatama achieved enlightenment
dharma
The core teaching of Buddhism that includes the Noble Eight-fold Path and the Four Noble Truths. ( In Hinduism it is an ethic that said one must obey religious and moral laws)
guilds
A social unit in India formed by people who have the same profession and social class
guilds
A corporate body that supervises the wages and protected it’s workers. Members formed their own small communities and caused the jati to be made
Gupta Empire
The empire that later unified India after the Maurya Empire
Gupta Empire
The Indian empire that was established through exploitative alliances, not through conquest. It relied on those alliances with regional kingdoms to govern
Ashoka Maurya
The grandson of Chandragupta Maurya who brought the Maurya Empire to it’s height.
Ashoka Maurya
The emperor who strengthened his control on his bureaucracy and built Pataliputra. He also supported Buddhism and built many statues and pillars to announce laws. His death sent the Mauryan Empire into decline
Ashoka Maurya
The Mauryan emperor who built many roads and irrigation systems in India to increase trade within India
Kalinga
The independent territory that Ashoka Maurya conquered. During this battle he underwent a spiritual transformation making him a Buddhist
jati
A subcaste, it refers to your profession and many in the same jati formed guilds
stupas
Popular shrines that housed relics of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas. It is a sort of religious museum funded by nobles
nirvana
Personal salvation one could achieve in both Buddhism and Hinduism. It occurred when you escaped the cycle of reincarnation and obtained eternal bliss.
Vishnu
The preserver of the world. One of the main gods in Hinduism. He often takes the form of humans.
Mahabharata
The Hindu epic that explains the role of your social class and involves Vishnu
Pataliputra
The capital for the Maurya and Gupta Empires. It was a cosmopolitan city that had massive wealth. It resided on the Ganges river and was well planned out to a rectangular shape
caste system
A social order system that was created by the Aryans.It also serves as a sort of political order as well, as social classes have power over the others
Jainism
An influential religion that arose in India when people started to stray from brahmin rituals. It emphasizes ahimsa to extreme extents and believes even non-living things have souls
Jainism
A religion that requires your entire life to obtain salvation. It involves extreme asceticism which led to it’s unpopularity when Buddhism arose
Vardhamana Mahavira
The founder of Jainism
bodhisattvas
People who obtained enlightenment but chose to stay on earth in order to help others do the same. They were examples of excellence and saints of Buddhism.
ahimsa
The process by which souls are purified in Jainism. In all religions, however, it is to not hurt any other soul in anything or anyone

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