AP World History Chapters 8 & 9 Terms

AP World History Chapters 8 & 9 Terms

Abbasid Caliphate
second Arab dynasty; ruled from 750-1258; Persian played a more prominent role; capital was moved to Baghdad
al-Andalus
Arab name given to Muslim Spain; capital at Cordoba; initially a place of tolerance between Muslims, Christians and Jews but persecution increased in the late 10th century
al-Ghalazi
major Islamic thinker who reconciled Sufism and the legalistic practices of the ulama
bushido
“the way of the warrior;” bravery, loyalty, endurance, honor, preference from death over surrender
chu nom
“southern script;” a variation of Chinese writing that developed in Vietnam; provided the basis for independent national (Vietnamese) literature and a vehicle for the most educated women
dhimmis
protected second class subjects within the world of Islam; “people of the book;” included Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians
Emperor Wendi
Sui ruler (581-604 C.E.) who supported the spread of Buddhism and used it to support military campaigns
foot binding
a product of tightened patriarchy during the Song Dynasty (10th-11th centuries); associated with beauty but also served to keep women in “inner quarters”
hadith
sayings and deeds of Muhammad
hajj
pillar of Islam; pilgrimage to Mecca
hangul
phonetic alphabet of Korea developed in the 13th century that established cultural independence from Chin
Hangzhou
apical of China during the Song Dynasty; described by Marco Polo as the most magnificent city in the world
hijra
the journey of Muhammad from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) in 622; marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar
House of Wisdom
established in Baghdad in 830 by Abbasid caliph al-Mamun; its thinkers, known as Mutazalites argued the reason (influenced by Greek texts) rather than revaluation would reveal the truth; faced increasing criticism
Ibn Battuta
14th century Arab traveler from Morocco; displeased with the Islamic practices of West Africa
Ibn Sina
known for setting standards for medical practice in Islamic and Christian worlds for centuries
Izumi Shikibu
illustrious female poet from Japan
jihad
Arabic for “struggle;” some call jihad the “sixth pillar;” as Muhammad directed, an inner struggle against greed and selfishness; jihad of the sword refers to the outer struggle against evil and unbelief
jizya
special tax administered to non-Muslims that allowed them to practice their faith within the Islamic world; substituted for military service
Khitan/Jurchen people
two groups who established states in Northern China forced tribute on the Song dynasty
madrassas
11th century colleges that taught advanced instruction in the Quran and the sayings of Muhammad; focused on Islamic law
Mansa Musa
ruler of 14th century Mali who made a pilgrimage to Mecca; sponsored building of Mosques, places and the transformation of Timbuktu into an Islamic center of learning
Quran
the sacred scriptures of Islam as revealed to Muhammad from 610-632 C.E.
samurai
the warrior class of Japan that emerged when political power there became increasingly decentralized
sharia
Islamic law, regulates every aspect of life; does not separate religious law from civil law
Shotoku Taishi
aristocrat from a major clan in Japan who emerged as a ruler and based Japanese rule on a Chinese-style empire; issued the Seventeen Article Constitution that among other things encouraged both Buddhism and Confucianism
Sikhism
new and distinct religion in India that emerged in the 16th century; blends elements of Islam (on true God) and Hinduism (karma and rebirth)
Silla Dynasty (Korea)
(688-900 C.E.) allied with China in the 7th century to bring political unity to the Korean Peninsula; later resisted (successfully) China’s effort to assimilate them, thereafter establishing a tribute relationship with Korea; followed by the Koryo (918-a392) and Yi (1392-1910) dynasties
Song Dynasty
960-1279 C.E.; witnessed the rise of Neo-Confucianiam; capital was Hangzhou; pushed south by nomadic Jurchen people who controlled parts of Northern China (Jin Empire); also witnessed economic revolution via a move toward commercial markets rather than domestic consumption
Sufism
mystics of Islam who sought a direct and personal relationship with the divine; saw the expanding of the empire as a distraction; renounced material world, practice music and dance
Sui Dynasty
reunified China and ruled from 589-618 C.E.; known for building canals that linked northern and southern China
Tang Dynasty
ruled China following the collapse of the Sui from 618-907 C.E.; extended Chinese control deep into Central Asia; together with Song was known as the “Golden Age of arts and literature
tribute system
helped China manage its relationships with its neighbors; required non-Chinese authorities to acknowledge Chinese superiority, and their own subordinate role; also required the kowtow (ritual bowing) and gifts of value from their countries
ulama
religious scholars; held religious authority especially for Sunni Muslims;important in transmitting the beliefs and practices of Islam
Ummayyad caliphate
the first dynasty after the Rightly Guided Caliphs; ruled from 661-750C.E.; moved capital from Medina to Damascus; ruling class was held by Arab aristocrats
umma
the just and moral society of Islam; the community of believers replacing tribal, ethnic, or racial identities
Xiognu
a confederacy of northern nomads during the Han dynasty that negotiated equality with China; in fact reversing the tribute system; a similar change came from the Uighurs during the Tang Dynasty (8th century)