AP World History Chinese Philosophy

AP World History Chinese Philosophy

Confucianism
Began around 400 b.c.e
Confucius was born to a rich family in Northern China and became a teacher and political advisor
His thoughts and saying were recorded in the book Analects
Confucianism (2)
Confucianism is a social and political philosophy; it is not a religion
Focuses on five fundamental relationships
-Ruler to subject, parent to child, husband and wife, older to younger siblings, and friend and friend
– When all people follow the right structure and roles society is orderly and predictable
Confucianism (3)
Other Values of Confucianism
Ren- humanity, kindness, and benevolence
Li- propriety, courtesy, and deference to elders
Xiao- filial piety- family obligation
-It was believed that people who fulfilled these roles would become excellent administrators
-under this system , political orders (parties) were not supported, instead good people were promoted
-women were viewed as second class citizens under Confucianism
Confucianism spread rapidly because it was not a threat to their religions
due to its philosophical nature, it could be blended with other religions
Daoism/Taoism
-Began around 500 B.C.E
-Taoism focuses on the Dao, which is defined as the way of nature and the cosmos
-Created by a man named Lao-tzu
– The concept of Dao is passive and yielding; it accomplishes everything yet does nothing
Daoism/Taoism (2)
– The concept of Dao is passive and yielding; it accomplishes everything yet does nothing
-Concept of water – it can be soft and yielding, yet capable of erosion
-Ambition and activism create chaos
– Taoist believe in wuwei- disengagement from worldly affairs, to live in harmony with nature
Daoism/Taoism (3)
-Daoist lived in small, self-sufficient communities, that promoted social harmony with other ideas
-Because of this it blended well with Confucianism and Legalism
-Daoist were advocates of science and promoted botany, chemistry, and astronomy
Legalism
Legalism began during the Qin Dynasty
-Believed that peace and order can only be obtained through a strong government
-Humans were evil and needed a strong forceful hand in order to do the right thing
-Harsh punishment and tough laws needed to be created
Legalism (2)
-There were only two professions that were worth having- farming and military
-Legalism was mainly adopted by government systems (Qin) to gain control
-Due to its brutal enforcement of laws, although the government followed legalism, many commoners turned to Confucianism and Daoism