AP World History Chp 1: Palaeolithic and Neolithic Era

AP World History Chp 1: Palaeolithic and Neolithic Era

Palaeolithic Era time period
2.5 million – 10,000 BC
Also called old stone age
Palaeolithic Era
– Longest portion of humans on earth
– Threatened their sources of food because they thrived so much
Palaeolithic Era characteristics
– Hunter-gatherers
– Mobile
– Small size/less children
– Relative gender equality
– Relative class equality/social equality
– Awareness of natural environment
What did Palaeolithic Era prevent?
– Prevented individuals from accumulating private property and basing social distinctions on wealth
– Due to interdependence of the sexes with food production, it probably did not encourage sex inequality
Prominent Palaeolithic settlements
– Natufian society in eastern Mediterranean
– Jomon society in central Japan
– Chinook society in the Pacific north-west region of North America
Prominent Palaeolithic settlements dates
– 13,500 BCE, Natufians collected wild wheat and took animals
– 10,000 to 300 BCE, Jomon settlers harvested wild buckwheat and developed a productive fishing economy
– Chinook society emerged after 3,000 BCE and flourished until 1950 CE
Neanderthal peoples
– Named after the Neander valley in western Germany
– Earliest evidence of reflective thought
– Not homo sapiens, did not interbreed
– Had developed a capacity for emotions and feelings
Homo sapiens
– distinguished themselves as creative and quite intelligent
– Development of language
– Producing stone blades
– Learned how to catch fish
– Developed sharp tools such as sewing needles
– Invented spear throwers and bow and arrows
– Also made ornamental objects and made paintings EXP. Venus figurines, cave paintings
Neolithic Era time period
10,000 BC – 4,000 BC
Also called new stone age
Neolithic Era
– Agricultural society
– Grew crops, raised animals
– Villages
– Made first steps towards a calendar
Result of agriculture
– Settled down (one of the earliest was Jericho)
– Food surplus
– Population growth
– Specialisation of labor (pottery, textiles, metalwork)
– Trade
– Social classes
– Gender inequality
– Religions
Neolithic religion
– Workings of the natural world influenced religion
– Reflected the natural world of early agricultural society
Neolithic Era (later on)
– Gave rise to cities
– Were larger and more complex than villages
– Fostered more intense specialisation
Rise of civilisation time period
4,000 BCE – 3,000 BCE
Difference between civilisation and complex societies
– Civilisations implies that the other societies were inferior and more primitive
Key Characteristics of a complex society (Could cover most complex societies)
1. Cities
2. Some form of government (can include military, bureaucracy)
3. Specialised labor
4. Social classes
5. Trade (economy, interactions with others)
6. Writing
7. Organised religion
8. Art and architecture