AP World History Chpt. 17 Vocab

AP World History Chpt. 17 Vocab

Charles Martel
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
Battle of Tours
European armies defeat Muslim armies and stop the spread of Islam in Europe.
Song of Roland
An epic that talked of a chivalric knight named Roland, it revealed the popular image of Charlemagne in later centuries.
Middle Ages
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as “Medieval.”
Franks
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis.
Germanic Kingdoms
They began to replace Roman provinces in the years of upheaval between 400 and 600. The borders of these kingdoms changed constantly with the fortunes of war.
Odoacer
Germanic barbarian leader who ended the western Roman Empire in 476 and became the first barbarian ruler of Italy (434-493).
Clovis
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy.
Clotilda
Queen of Franks converted her husband, Clovis to Chrstianity (Early Middle Ages, France) Pages 36-7, 42
Charlemagne
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning.
Carolingians
the family that ruled the Franks in Gaul from 751 to 987 in the Carolingian Dynasty. This began when Pepin was declared king. They lost power after the Treaty of Verdun.
Gregory of Tours
538 to 594. Bishop of Tours in Central Gaul for 21 years. He composed a History of the Franks which was a chief source of information about the early Franks. Documented Clovis’ conversion to Christianity which was a significant event to Clovis and to the Roman Church.
missi dominici
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king’s laws.
Pope Leo lll
escaped Rome & fled to Charlemagne’s court; Char helped the Pope, allowing them to be on good terms; On Cmas day, 800, Char was crowned “Emperor of Rome”.
Louis the Pious
third son of Charlemagne and king of France and Germany and Holy Roman Emperor (778-840).
magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary.
Norse peoples
Scandinavian Viking culture from 800–‐1000 CE; what we know about their religion is from later Christian and Arabic writers; the god Thor was central for sure, particularly for the common people; Odin was king of the world and patron of warriors; Loki was the trickster; Frejya was the Lady; cosmology consisted of an immense Yggdrasil cosmic tree supporting nine different worlds, each populated by different beings: giants, elves, gods, dwarves, etc; there was conflict between the worlds
vikings
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western from the eighth through the tenth century.
angles
Invaders who later established England.
saxons
Germanic people. During the 5th century ad groups from these communities migrated to Britain either by invitation or invasion and in due course founded kingdoms.
Otto l of Saxony
German ruler who successfully subdued all the competing dukes and crushed the Magyars. Crowned emperor by Pope John XII in 962, helped revive the eastern half of Charlemagne’s empire. Established an empire that would last until 1806.
feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service.
lords
People of high rank who received land in exchange for their loyalty.
grants
a right or privilege that has been granted.
retainers
a servant or attendant, especially one in the household of a person of high rank.
serfs
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times.
manors
large farm estates of the Middle Ages that were owned by nobles who ruled over the peasants living in the land.
heavy plows
plows made of material that plowed quickly. However, they were heavy.
Capitulary de Villis
King and aristocrats, Carolingian Dynasty in the 8th Century, a set of rules for care of the king’s property.
Pope Gregory the l
pope who banned lay investiture and excommunicated Henry IV.
St. Benedict
he founded a monastery in nothern ital in the 6th century and wrote a set of instructions gonverning the lives of monks that was used by monasteries and vonbents across europe.
The Rule
The Best Evidence Rule requires that to prove the contents of a document, the original document must be produced, unless it is excused.
St. Scholastica
482-543 sister to St. Benedict adapted his Rules into guidance for women in convents.
abbots
(heads of monasteries) began to focus more on material things than on the spiritual needs of monks.
scriptoria
writing rooms where monks copied the works of early Christianity, such as the Bible, but also the works of Latin classical authors.